Writing  Skills  Manual

Griffith  Aviation
Writing  Skills  Manual
Version: 5.1 Page  1  of  37
Griffith  Aviation
WRITING  STYLE  MANUAL  (WSM)
PROCEDURES  FOR THE PREPARATION AND
PRESENTATION OF WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS
Version:  5.1
Griffith  Aviation
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Table  of  Contents
1 Preface………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.1 Griffith  Aviation  Mission  Statement…………………………………………………………………………………..4
1.2 About  this  Manual………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4
1.3 Purpose  of  this  Manual …………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
1.4 Audience…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4
1.5 Maintenance  of  this  Manual  and  Feedback………………………………………………………………………4
1.6 Revision  Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………4
2 Written  Assignments……………………………………………………………………………. 6
2.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6
2.2 Written  Reports  and  Essays…………………………………………………………………………………………………6
2.3 Assessment  Criteria……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2.4 Planning  Your  Work………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
2.5 Academic  integrity…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………7
3 Written  Reports ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….9
3.2 The  Report  Writing  Process…………………………………………………………………………………………………9
3.2.1 Lecturer’s  /  Client’s  Instructions …………………………………………………………………………………..10
3.2.2 Instructions  Received  and  Clarified ……………………………………………………………………………..10
3.2.3 Plan  Developed………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….11
3.2.4 Review  of  Literature  /  Previous  Work  /  Set  Text………………………………………………………11
3.2.5 Information  collection …………………………………………………………………………………………………….12
3.2.6 Analysis  and  Interpretation……………………………………………………………………………………………12
3.2.7 Draft  Document  Developed…………………………………………………………………………………………….13
3.2.8 Document  Reviewed  (Final  Edit)…………………………………………………………………………………..16
3.2.9 Submit  Report……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
3.3 The  Report  Format  and  Style  Conventions…………………………………………………………………… 17
3.3.1 General  Aspects…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
3.3.2 Sections……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….17
3.3.3 Headings  and  Their  Numbering ……………………………………………………………………………………17
3.3.4 Images,  Tables,  Figures,  Maps  and  Appendices …………………………………………………………18
3.3.5 Word  Count………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..19
4 Essays………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
4.1 Preamble ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
4.2 Purpose  of  Essays……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 20
4.3 Planning………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
4.3.1 Interpreting  the  Topic……………………………………………………………………………………………………..20
4.3.2 Selecting  a  Topic……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20
4.3.3 Determining  the  Approach …………………………………………………………………………………………….21
4.4 Research……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
4.4.1 Preamble…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
4.4.2 Sources  of  Information ……………………………………………………………………………………………………21
4.5 Writing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21
4.5.1 Preamble…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
4.5.2 The  Outline…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21
4.5.3 Drafting  Your  Essay …………………………………………………………………………………………………………22

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4.5.4 The  Final  Draft ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
4.6 Essay  Content………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
4.6.1 Preamble…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….22
4.7 Essay  Format  and  Style……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
4.8 Word  Count………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
4.9 Essay  Checklist ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
5 Assignment  Submission  Procedures ……………………………………………………… 26
5.1 Methods  Where  SafeAssign  is  Not  Mandated……………………………………………………………….. 26
5.2 Submitting  via  SafeAssign…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26
5.3 Return  of  Assignments………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 27
6 General  Standardisation……………………………………………………………………… 28
6.1 Numbers  and  Time …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28
6.1.1 Numbers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..28
6.1.2 Fractions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….29
6.1.3 Percentages………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29
6.1.4 Dates ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………29
6.1.5 Time …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….30
6.1.6 Monetary  Amounts…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..30
6.2 Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31
6.2.1 Abbreviations  in  Legislation…………………………………………………………………………………………..31
6.2.2 Abbreviations  “Pty”  and  “Ltd” ……………………………………………………………………………………….32
6.3 Capitalisations …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
6.3.1 General………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..32
6.3.2 Departments  and  Organisations …………………………………………………………………………………..32
6.4 Spelling  and  Grammar……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33
6.4.1 Dictionaries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
6.4.2 Australian  Spellings …………………………………………………………………………………………………………33
6.4.3 Compound  Words……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..33
6.4.4 Punctuation:  Use  of  Colon,  Semicolon  and  Comma…………………………………………………..33
7 References ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
Griffith  Aviation  acknowledges  the  Guidelines  for  the  preparation  and
presentation  of  written  assignments
,  produced  by  the  Department  of  Tourism,
Leisure,  Hotel  &  Sport  Management,  Griffith  University,  the  
Style  Guide,  produced
by  the  Administrative  Appeals Tribunal,  Australian  Government  and  the  support
and  assistance  provided  by  the  Health,  Learning  &  Teaching  Department  of
Griffith  University.

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1 Preface
1.1 Griffith  Aviation  Mission  Statement
The Griffith Aviation Mission is to enhance Aviation Safety through the pursuit
of excellence in education and research.
1.2 About  this  Manual
The Griffith Aviation Writing Style Manual (WSM) sets down the procedures
for the preparation, presentation and submission of written assignments for
aviation students.
The manual will be posted against each aviation sponsored course on
[email protected] ([email protected]) and will form part of the assessment criteria for
written assignments.
1.3 Purpose  of  this  Manual
The purpose of this manual is to provide students with a basis on which to draw
when developing written assignments and by this method build on their formal
writing skills in a manner that is consistent with Government and industry
practice.
It also provides a basis for standardisation of written assignments including
their assessment.
1.4 Audience
The Griffith Aviation WSM applies to all students enrolled in Griffith Aviation
programs and all Griffith Aviation staff.
1.5 Maintenance  of  this  Manual  and  Feedback
The Directors of Undergraduate, Postgraduate and Research shall maintain this
manual under the authority of the Head of Aviation.
The Manual will be maintained as a controlled electronic document and will be
updated on a regular basis.
Students or staff who identify opportunities for improvement of the manual
content are to send them via email to
[email protected] using the heading
‘Griffith Aviation Writing Style Manual’. All suggestions will be considered as
part of the regular review process.
1.6 Revision  Summary

Version Date Details
1 17 May 2010 Initial issue
2 18 May 2010 Amendments to Section 4 – Assignment
submission procedures.

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3 19 July 2010 Amendments to Section 1 re. Mission
Statement, and Section 2/3 re. Word
Length.
4 8 July 2011 Addition of Section 5, General
Standardisation. Amendments to spelling
and grammar.
5 27 February 2012 General changes to title, preface, written
and report structure. A reordering of
content and inclusion of more practical
advice.
5.1 18 July 2012 Minor editorial change.

Table 1: Revision Summary
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2 Written  Assignments
2.1 Introduction
Aviation professionals need to be effective communicators. Their role, in many
instances, is to provide advice and information designed to aid decision-making
processes. Quite often that role is fulfilled by the preparation and presentation
of written documents. The development of writing skills is fundamental for
aviation professionals and Griffith Aviation places a high priority on this aspect
of its teaching and learning outcomes.
2.2 Written  Reports  and  Essays
There is often confusion between the terms Written Reports and Essays.
A Written Report is a piece of informative writing that describes a situation or
set of actions and analyses the results in response to a specific brief. An essay
is much more liberal with the author having the freedom to develop a line of
argument without reliance on an evidence based approach. Table 2 summarises
the key differences between Written Reports and Essays.

Written Reports are: Essays are:
Formally structured Semi-structured
Informative and fact-based
including appropriate references
(evidence based approach)
Argumentative and idea-based
Written in a formal style
appropriate to each section
May be emotional rather than
evidence based
Written with a specific objective
and reader in mind
Not written with a specific reader
in mind
Always includes general and
section headings
Usually does not include general
and section headings
Sometimes uses bullet points Usually does not include bullet
points
Often includes tables or graphs Rarely includes tables or graphs
Provides an evident based
discussion to form a logical
conclusion
Written in single narrative style
throughout
May offer recommendations for
action
Offers conclusions about a question
Includes in-text referencing and
a reference list
May include a reference list and
only rarely in-text referencing

Table 2 – Report and Essay Key Differences
The standard approach taken in Griffith Aviation is for students to develop
Written Reports in an academic style. This means that there is a need for an

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introduction (including aim), rational discussion, conclusion, recommendations
(if applicable), in-text referencing, reference list (as a minimum) and it is
presented in a specific format. The emphasis is on an evidence based approach
in regard to content.
The essay format will only be used by students when the assigned task specifies
this format.
2.3 Assessment  Criteria
The assessment criteria for a course is either in the Course Profile and/or
advised by the lecturer on [email protected] Please take the time to review
the various course related documents as they have major implications on your
marking horizon for assignments.
2.4 Planning  Your  Work
Completing a written assignment requires gathering a great deal of information
within a limited time span. Therefore, it is most important that you plan your
work beforehand. The process is described in further detail later in this manual
but the following points are a general guide on what your plan should take into
account:
a) Identify the information you require.
b) Identify the ways and means of gathering that information.
c) Establish the priority or importance of various pieces of information and
allocating appropriate amounts of time for collection.
d) Establish your own time lines for the completion of the various tasks
associated with the study, eg gathering information, taking photographs,
writing the final report.
e) Allow for contingencies that might arise, particularly with regard to
external influences such as work (if applicable); and personal activities.
f) Ensure that you allow sufficient time at the end of your research for the
preparation of the final report, including editing and proof reading of the
final version.
g) Students with an English as a Second Language background should
include extra time in their plan for the writing aspects of the task.
h) If required, prepare an oral presentation of your findings to your lecturer
and/or client.
2.5 Academic  integrity
Before discussing the formal Griffith University policy on this area, it should be
noted that Griffith Aviation highly values student development and would much
prefer to see original work rather than students copying the most highly praised
written work of others.
Academic integrity refers to honesty and trust in all aspects of academic work.
It includes the way students write assignments and papers, conduct themselves
during examinations, and behave as researchers.

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Whether your future career is in academic institutions, in an independent
professional role or in industry, government or community-based organisations,
the people you interact with will respect the honesty and trustworthiness
demonstrated in your professional life.
In universities, academic integrity is important because, without honesty and
trust, true academic discourse becomes impossible, learning is distorted and the
evaluation of student progress and academic quality is seriously compromised.
Griffith University is committed to:
a) Assuring Griffith’s academic credibility and reputation.
b) Protecting the standards of the awards that Griffith students earn.
c) Ensuring that students receive due credit for the work they submit for
assessment.
d) Protecting the interests of those students who do not cheat.
e) Advising students of the need for academic integrity, and guiding them
towards best practice in studying and learning.
f) Educating students about what intellectual property is, why it matters,
how to protect their own work, and how to legitimately access other
people’s work.
Griffith University discharges this commitment by focusing on preventing
academic misconduct by students. Prevention of misconduct takes many forms
including the education of students, the professional development of staff, the
reduction of opportunities, and an ongoing development of procedures to detect
academic misconduct/fraud and to deal appropriately and fairly with those
found guilty of it.
Griffith students provides information about academic integrity in the Griffith
portal. Please refer to Griffith Portal > Learning and assessment > Academic
integrity for students.

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3 Written Reports1
3.1 Introduction
In setting the assignment, the lecturer will set a question or pose a problem
which the Written Report should attempt to answer or resolve. Students should
exercise caution in choosing their title and aim to make sure they are addressing
the assigned task.
The first question you need to ask yourself is what will you be writing on? This
is the title of the paper and should be expressed in a short phrase. The second
question you need to ask is what is my aim? An alternative name for the aim is
the thesis statement. It will signal the method by which the subject will be
examined and it is followed by any specific boundaries or limitations that may
apply to it.
It is fundamental that the title and aim should be clear from the outset as they
define the conduct of all activities including the extent of research required.
Often, the lecturer may provide vague or ambiguous instructions. Without
clarification the writer of the report runs the risk of providing information that
is not really required, or may fail to respond to critical questions. This means
that, if necessary, the objectives should be clarified with the lecturer for whom
the report is being prepared.
3.2 The  Report  Writing  Process
The report writing process should be seen as a series of logical, sequential steps.
Figure 1 gives a general view of this process.
1
This approach to report writing is similar to that used in the private and public sectors in Australia. Therefore,
where you see the word ‘lecturer’ you should also read this as your work superior or, if you are a consultant,
your client.
1.    Lecturer’s  /
Client’s
Instructions
2.    Instructions
Received  &
ClariYied
3.    Plan  Developed
4.    Review  of
Literature  /
Previous  Work  /
Set  Text
5.    Information
Collection
6.    Analysis  &
Interpretation
7.    Draft  Document
Developed
8.    Document
Reviewed  (Final
Edit)
9.    Submit  Report  

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Figure 1: The Report Writing Process
Remember that this is a general report writing process. In some circumstances,
this process may not be appropriate. As an example, the report objectives may
be relatively specific and may not require a review of previous work in the
field. In this case, it may be more appropriate to survey the available
techniques for solving the specific problem. Similarly, you may not be required
to make recommendations as the report may be directed at the general
investigation of an issue or problem.
Often students miss critical foundation steps, and commence collecting
information haphazardly without appropriate and sufficient thought to the
purpose of the information being collected and what pieces of information are
really important. This can result in precious time and effort being wasted.
Working through this process carefully and thoughtfully should prevent such
mistakes being made and ensure that you make the most effective use of your
time, whilst ensuring the preparation of a quality report.
The process involves the following steps:
3.2.1 Lecturer’s  /  Client’s  Instructions
This basically involves the specification of the task that you must
undertake. The level of detail will vary depending on the nature of the task
and the individual or organisation issuing the instructions. The lecturer’s
aims may be either implicit (asking you to interpret) or explicitly (very
clearly) stated in the instructions.
3.2.2 Instructions  Received  and  Clarified
This is a major step in the Written Report process. Misinterpretation of the
instructions may result in an inadequate response to the lecturer’s
requirements.
You should therefore take careful and deliberate steps to:
a) Analyse and interpret the instructions.
b) Attempt to clarify any aspects that are vague or uncertain in your
mind.
c) If required, confirm your interpretation through consultation with
your lecturer or client.
d) If not already specified, agree on the times and dates for interim
reports, presentations and the submission of the final report.
It is not unusual in the commercial sector for the task and associated
milestones to be documented with the latter having performance assessment
and/or financial implications.

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3.2.3 Plan  Developed
This is the ‘thinking’ part of the process where you map out the task and its
associated internal milestones that you will work towards.
By way of example, if you were tasked to develop a plan for the
implementation of new air traffic regulations you would need to understand
a number of factors including:
a) the various options available to implement the plan (eg incremental or
revolutionary change);
b) the current and forecast level of air activity that will be affected;
c) any constraints that will affect the implementation (eg pilot training,
air traffic controller training, equipment changes; etc) and lead times;
d) the willingness of all participants to embrace change (including flying
operators, peak aviation bodies and unionised workforces); and
e) the support and resources available (senior management commitment,
finances, manpower, etc) to make it happen.
The task may be far more complex than it may first appear. You need to
make sure your plan has sufficient flexibility to not only cover the planned
areas of research but to also include time to research critical factors that
you may discover as the task progresses. It is also a good idea to allow
time for consultations as often the experience of others will greatly inform
your work.
In developing your plan, you should answer the following questions:
a) What are the background and critical factors to be investigated?
b) What method or methods will be used to collect the information?
c) What are the potential sources of information?
d) What pieces of information should be given priority in terms of time
and effort?
Remember, if you do not have a plan then you run the risk of not being able
to effectively implement the various actions required to produce a quality
paper. This means that you may be submitting a paper that does not give
you the best opportunity for a good mark.
3.2.4 Review  of  Literature  /  Previous  Work  /  Set  Text
This involves a considered search for relevant published and unpublished
works and information in the area you are researching, obtaining and
reading the relevant items, and drawing relevant points for your own report.
The review of literature is an important step in helping you to define and
understand the problem, whilst allowing you to access relevant and recent
knowledge and developments in your area.
In an academic environment you should also refer to the set text as it can be
very helpful in defining specific terms and phrases and describing the

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underlying principles involved. The set text should always be a reference
for any report at Griffith Aviation.
An effective literature review may save you considerable time. You may
discover, for example, that existing work has already answered many of the
questions posed by the lecturer. Your own research can then concentrate
on simply filling in the gaps or up-dating existing information.
3.2.5 Information  collection
The purpose of this step, which in part may be conducted concurrently with
the previous step, is to collect pertinent information that allows you to
address the set questions or problems and which has direct relevance to
your title and aim.
Some people write the topic and aim on a large piece of paper and display it
prominently in their work area to remind them of the task at hand. You
must resist going down ‘rabbit holes’ which is where you become
interested in peripheral information at the cost of the primary research task.
Similar principles apply to ensuring you are not distracted by other
activities in your assigned study period such as emails and social media.
People collect information in various ways. Some read and remember what
they read and where, some write extensive notes with a reference to page
numbers and paragraphs, others use sticky labels, and so on. The principle
to remember is that any assertions, evidence provided in support of your
logical discussions, or the work of others must be cited using in-text
referencing. So, it is most important that you have a mechanism to quickly
locate important thoughts, ideas and direct quotations that you wish to use
in your report.
You should not rely solely on internet sources and when using these you
must make sure you are using ‘quality’ sites where the postings have been
peer reviewed or there is organisational reputation involved. On-line
academic journals that have been peer reviewed are excellent resources as
are aviation related peak body or representational organisations. There are
also some news media sites that have a reputation for the quality of their
reporting. You must make sure that you are producing evidence to support
your aim and not gossip, hearsay, or conjecture. For example, The
Australian, The New York Times, ICAO, FAA, Transport Canada, UK
CAA and so on are reliable sources of information. However, the same
cannot be said for the vast majority of content on the internet so be careful
in your choices.
3.2.6 Analysis  and  Interpretation
This part involves analysing and interpreting the information you have
collected into a framework on which to build your detailed introduction
(including aim); discussion; conclusion; and recommendations, if
applicable.

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At this point, it may be appropriate for you to review your progress.
Consider whether you have satisfied the objective and assure yourself that
you have sufficient academic ‘evidence’ to support your paper. If the
answer is ‘no’, you may need to return to an earlier step in the process.
Also at this stage you may identify gaps in your research conducted to date
and you may need to return to an earlier step to back fill your knowledge
base to better answer the question or respond to the problem.
At the end of this step you should either have a mental or written
framework on which to build your report. You should have decided in
general terms what will be included in the introduction, the discussion, the
conclusion and the recommendations, if applicable.
3.2.7 Draft  Document  Developed
It is now time to complete your draft which you will continue to develop
into your near final draft. Table 3 provides details on the required
structure.

4 Element Content
Title  Page
For details see Appendix 1
and  2.
The  format  and  contents  for  the  Title  Pageareat
Appendix  1(Griffith  Assignments)  and  Appendix  2
(External  Reports).7507BPS  Aviation
Management  Research  Paper  students  should  use
the  Appendix  2  format.
The  titleis  a  clear  statement  of  the  subject  under
considerationandit  is  linked  to  the  aimand  the
contents  of  the  conclusion.    A  good  titlewould  be:
‘ThePrinciples  of  Organisational  Planning  and  the
Airline  Industry’.A  poor  titlewould  be:  ‘Looking  at
the  Implications  of  the  Airline  Industry  in  Relation
to  Five  of  the  Nine  Major  Consideration  Factors
ThatAffect  Market  Yield  in  Growing  Markets  With
Specific  Referenceto  the  Maldives  and  Seychelles’.
The  titleneeds  to  be  consistentwith  the  set
question.Do  not  use  titles  such  as  ‘2519BPS  Major
Assignment’.
Executive  Summary
Between  10%(smaller
papers)and5% (longer
papers)but  not  to  exceed
1,200 words.
Not  counted  inword
count.
Allreportsare  toinclude  an  Executive  Summary.It
derives  its  name  from  its  target  audience  of  the  key
decision-­‐makers  of  an  organization. As  the
Executive  Summary  is  the  reader’s  first  exposure  to
a  report’s  contents,  clarity  and  conciseness  are  vital.
These help ‘sell’ the report’s content and encourage
further reading of the complete report.
The structure of the Executive Summary should
follow the structure of your report.    It  should
include  abrief statementofthe  following:

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definition of the problemor  proposal;
aim  and  associated  conditionswith  any
boundaries  or  considerations;
methods of analysis/data sources;
key findings which led to conclusions;
conclusions; and
any recommendations for action(if
applicable).
The executive summary should not be seen as a
substitute for a full discussion/exposition of any
matters in the body of your report.
Please  note  that  this isnot  a  place  to  introducenew
conceptsor  informationnot  already  raisedin  the
main  body  ofthereport.
It  is  recommended  that  you  write  the  Executive
Summaryas  the  last  task  before  submitting  the
report.
Introduction
10% of word count.
Introduces  the  subject,  places  it  in  context,  outlines
how  the  topic  will  be  examined  and  provides  a
specific  aim  of  thepaper(your  thesis  statement)
with  anyboundariesor limitations.
The  aim  is  the  most  important  element  of  the
report.    It  links  the  title,  the  introduction,  discussion
and,  most  importantly,  allows  you  to  state  in  your
conclusion  that  the  aim  has  been  achieved.
Generally,  the  aim  is  the  first  sentence  of  the  last
paragraph  in  the  introduction.    It  should  take  a
positive  and  discrete  form.    A  good  aimwould  be:
‘This  paper  will  examine  the  principles  of
organisational  planning  that  apply  to  the  airline
industry.’An  aim  is  a  statement  of  intent  and
should  not  beexpressed in  apologetic  or  non
specific  terms.    Some  examples  of  poor  aims  would
be:‘This  paper  will  attempt  to  look  at  …’  and‘The
aim,  if  it  is  possible,  may  look  at  some  of  the
examples  that  couldpossibly  apply  in  certain
circumstances  if  all  factors  are  considered  in
relation  to  others  in  examining  this  large  and
expansive  topic.’
Discussion
80% of word count.
The  examination  of  a  set  question  or  topic  where
the  author  breaks  the  evidence  into  parts  and
undertakes  a  critical  analysis  of  itwhileproviding
insight into their personal perspectivesleading  to
an  appropriate  conclusion.

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It  can  bebuilteither  laterally,  where  individual
points  are  discussed  before  going  on  to  the  next
one,  or  vertically,  where  one  discussion  point  leads
to  the  next.For  example,  if  you  are  discussing  the
method  to  build  a  house  you  would  not  start with
how  to  construct  the  roof.    Start  at  the  beginning,
the  preparation  of  the  site,  the  foundations,  and
then  progress  in  a  logical  mannerusing  related
clusters  of  information.
In  the  discussion  section  there  is  a  need  to
demonstrateanunderstanding  of  theory  by
demonstrating  its  application.For  postgraduate
students,  arepetition  of  theory  except  ingeneral
terms  to  build  the  discussionshouldbe  avoided.
The  discussion  is  normally  developed  in  a  logical
mannerwhere  the  evidence  in  support  is  presented
before  any  evidence  thatmaychallengeit.
Remember,  the  final  result  should  be  an  evidence
based  paper.
References  fromauthoritativesources  should  be
used  with  a  good  essay  linking  one  discussion  point
with  the  next  one.
Conclusion
10% of word count.
Providesa  summary  of  the  main  ideas  presented
including  the  relevance  of  any  major  points  made,
providesa  clear  statement  that  the  aim  has  been
met,  andmayprovidecomment  on  the  ongoing
significance  of  thepoints  raised.
Remember,  the  paper  should  end  on  a  strong  note
where  you  have  clearly  indicated  that  the  task  is
complete.The reader should be able to clearly see
how you have arrived at your conclusion.One
technique  is  to  restate  the  aim  in  general  terms  as
the  first  sentence  of  the  last  paragraph  before
discussing  the  on-­‐going  significance  of  thetopic.
Please  note  that  this  is  not  a  place  to  introducenew
conceptsor  information  not  already  raisedin  the
main  body  ofthereport.
Recommendations
(ifapplicable)
Not counted in word
count.
A  short  formal  statement  of  the  need  for  further
action,  discussion  or  comment. Recommendations
should  be  stated  in  very  clear  and  precise  language.
There  is  no  need  to  include  the  background  for  the
recommendationsas  this  should  be  in  the
conclusion  and/or  body  of  the  paper.
The  reader  should  be  able  to  clearlysee  how  you
have  arrived  at  your  recommendations.

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In-­‐Text  Referencing
Not counted in word
count.
Reference  List
Not counted in word
count
.
Appendices
Not counted in word
count.
The  source  of  all  ideas  and  datathathave been
borrowed, quoted or otherwise used must be
acknowledged in the body of the report.All  in-­‐text
referencing  is  to  be  in  accordance  with  thelatest
APA  style  of  referencing.
For  further  details,  please  refer  to  the  Referencing
Tool  and  select  APA  6  at:
http://www.griffith.edu.au/library/workshops-­‐training/self
help-­‐resources/referencing
Your  report  must  be  accompanied  by  a  Reference
Listthataccurately  indicates  all  the  books,  articles
in  journals  and  other  written  matter  that  you  have
used  in  assembling  your  report.    This  records  only
printed  or  manuscript  report  material.
Thus, information obtained through personal
interviews should not be included in the reference
list but should be acknowledged in the in-­‐text
referencing.
When you prepare your Reference List ensure that
it is consistent with the latest APA style of
referencing.
For  further  details,  please  refer  to  the  GU
Referencing  Tool  and  select  APA  6  at:
http://www.griffith.edu.au/library/workshops-­‐training/self
help-­‐resources/referencing
You  should  use  your  judgment  when  considering
whether  to  includeAppendices.
Generally,  an  appendixwill be used to include
detailed evidence  necessary  to  support  your
discussion.    However,  it  may  be  too  large  ortoo
detailed to be included in the discussionwithout
distracting  the  reader  from  the  discussion  central
themes.Only  the  major  aspects  or  inferences  from
the  detailed  data  or  informationin  the  Appendices
areincluded  in  the  main  paper.

Table 3: Written Report Structure
4.1.1 Document  Reviewed  (Final  Edit)
It is recommended that you complete this step three or more days after you
have completed your final draft. It is also recommended that you ask
someone else to review the paper for spelling, grammar, syntax and flow.
Once the final edits have been completed, the report is ready for
submission.

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4.1.2 Submit  Report
The report is to be submitted in accordance with the directions in the
Course Profile.
4.2 The  Report  Format and  Style  Conventions
4.2.1 General  Aspects
All reports are to conform to the following format and style conventions.
a) Submitted on quality A4 paper.
b) All text to be in Arial or Times New Roman 12 point fonts.
c) All text to be one and a half line spacing.
d) A 2.5 cm margin is to be provided on the left hand side of the page.
e) All pages are to be numbered on the bottom right hand side of the
page. Numbering is to be in Arabic Numerals eg 1, 2, 3, etc.
f) All illustrations should be neatly and clearly presented. Hand drawn
maps and diagrams should be scanned and electronically inserted into
the report.
g) The report should be free of spelling, typographical, punctuation and
grammatical errors.
h) All illustrative materials, particularly maps, which are included in the
report, should preferably be on A4 sized paper. Larger documents
should be photo-reduced to this size. Where this is not possible, the
documents should be folded appropriately into the report.
4.2.2 Sections
The discussion section of the report should be divided into a series of
sections, each of which deals with a major theme in developing the topic in
a logical manner. On occasions, readability will be improved by breaking
sections down into sub-sections to better examine the factors under
consideration.
4.2.3 Headings  and  Their  Numbering
Many people have trouble with headings. The headings of ‘Introduction’;
‘Conclusion’ and ‘Recommendations’ (if applicable) are part of the Written
Report format. Headings should be used during the discussion or body to
give the reader the signposts to where the discussion is going. Reading a
lengthy paper without headings to indicate where you have been and where
you are going tends to be a chore for the reader. In a work situation, a
superior will not read more than the first page if the document is not in a
standard format and readable.
The headings depend on the subject under discussion. They should be
chosen to indicate the major themes that are being discussed and there
should be a logic flow between them.

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A good essay links the discussion point just discussed with the next point to
be discussed. This technique is termed ‘segue’ (pronounced ‘seg-way’) and
its use allows the paper to smoothly move from one theme to the next
making the next discussion point appear to be an extension of the
discussion so far. For example: ‘While unity of objectives is important to
achieve competitive advantage, so is the span of control within an
organisation.’ This is followed by the next heading which is: ‘Span of
Control’.
Headings should be consistent and have a logical hierarchy. The following
types of headings should be used:
Higher Order Headings (Used for Title and Major Section Headings in a
Written Report)
INTRODUCTION
1st Order Heading
2. FATIGUE RISK MANAGEMENT
2nd Order Heading
2.1 Legislative Requirements in the Management of Flight Duty Time
3rd Order Heading
2.1.2 Flight Crew
4th Order Heading
a)
Long Haul Flight Crew
The use of these styles and numbering systems will allow the reader to
understand the logical flow of your work. Word processing applications
provide a wide range of heading and layout styles. Decisions such as
indentation of text, left or full justify, and so on are often a matter of
personal preference or the standard practices of a specific workplace.
4.2.4 Images,  Tables,  Figures,  Maps  and  Appendices
All images, tables, figures, maps, appendices must be numbered in
sequence, titled, show the source of the information and be referred to in
the text of the report. They should be used to illustrate significant points in
the text or to present data on which the analysis and conclusions are based
and should have some definite, illustrative or analytical purpose.
Tables in the body of the report should be short, simple and relatively easy
to comprehend.
All images, tables, figures and maps are given a number (with each type
being separately numbered) and a title eg ‘Figure 1: The Report Writing
Process’; ‘Table 1: Report and Essay Differences’. The number and title is
to be at the bottom and centred.

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Appendices are numbered at the top right hand side of the page using
‘Appendix 1’ etc followed two lines later by a centred and capitalised
heading.
4.2.5 Word  Count
A word count will be set for most assigned tasks while studying with
Griffith Aviation. You are to make a serious effort to observe the word
count for the three following reasons:
a) A good report is one that is economical with words.
b) The word limit is an indication to you of the depth of investigation
and analysis required.
c) Word limits are often placed on work in the business and government
sectors.
Busy decision makers often require the presentation of material in very
concise form; long reports are often not read.
A useful tip when planning your work is to allocate a certain number of
words to each section of your report. This will help keep you within the
overall word limit.
All written assignments are to be within 5% of the set word count and
major marking penalties will be applied for submitted assignments outside
these limits. Where a submitted document is less than 80% of the set word
count, the paper will not be marked and a mark of ‘zero’ will be recorded.
Words used in the Executive Summary; Recommendations (if applicable);
In-Text Referencing; Reference List; and Appendices do not count towards
the word count limit.

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5 Essays
5.1 Preamble
The essay is one of the traditional learning and assessment tools of the
educational system. It is less structured than a report and is more concerned
with the expression and debate of ideas. However, many of the requirements of
essays are similar to those of reports, eg clear, concise and logical presentation.
This section of the manual deals with matters specific to the preparation of
essays.
5.2 Purpose  of Essays
The Macquarie Dictionary defines an essay as:
‘A short piece of writing on a particular subject, often to argue a point of view.’
Therefore, an essay is the process used to develop this point of view and is as
important as the point of view itself. Your main purpose in writing an essay is
to convince the reader that your argument is both valid and carefully
considered. The process of arriving at a position is as important as the
conclusion itself.
5.3 Planning
5.3.1 Interpreting  the  Topic
When tasked to write an essay, the first step is to understand what you are
being asked to do. There are three (3) types of key words that you will
need to interpret before starting work on your essay.
a) Topic  Words.    These  define  the  topic  area  that  needs  to  be
addressed.
b)
Limiting  Words.    These  alert  you  to  the  limitations  and
boundaries  of  your  research,  for  example,  ‘…which  impacted
aircraft  manufacturing  over  the  past  10  years.’
c)
Directive  Words.    These  will  define  the  nature  of  the  task,  for
example,  ‘critically  discuss’,  ‘evaluate’,  ‘analyse’,  ‘examine’  or
‘compare  and  contrast’.
5.3.2 Selecting  a  Topic
You may also be given a choice of topics. If so, select a topic after
considering:
a) the relevance of each topic to your own interests,
b) the relevance of each topic to your past or future work,
c) the scope that each topic has for being developed into a worthwhile
piece of work, and

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d) the type of resources required by each topic and your access to
suitable information.
5.3.3 Determining  the  Approach
Once you have settled on a topic and interpreted it, you need to think about
how you are going to approach it. You should be asking yourself the
following questions:
a) What are the key concepts or issues that need to be investigated?
b) What is the relative importance of each concept or issue? In
particular, which of these are fundamental to dealing with the topic?
5.4 Research
5.4.1 Preamble
The basis of research for any essay will be reading literature that is related
to the topic. You should read as widely as possible and seek to gain a
number of differing perspectives on the topic. You should not look for
direct answers in the literature but rather should use the work of a variety of
authors to develop an argument.
5.4.2 Sources  of  Information
Quite often your lecturer will provide you with a list of key references on
the topic. Rarely should you confine your reading to this list. Rather you
should actively seek out other sources of information by using:
a) your library research skills (catalogue searching for books and
electronic database searches for journal articles);
b) each reference that you read as a source for further references; and
c) internet search engines such as ‘Google Scholar’.
By this means, build up your own reading list and try to assign an order of
importance to each reference. You may not have time to read all potential
sources of information. Therefore, you will need to evaluate each piece of
information to determine its usefulness and quality.
5.5 Writing
5.5.1 Preamble
You should go through several stages in writing your essay. You will need
to develop an outline before writing your initial draft. This should be
completed well in advance of the due date to allow adequate time for
redrafting, editing and final proofreading of the document.
5.5.2 The  Outline
This is where you decide what your argument will be and put the
knowledge you have gained from your research and your thoughts on the
topic into an appropriate logical order. Before doing this you should
review your notes and record the main contributions made by each source

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and any of your own significant observations. Think critically about the
information you have gathered and ask yourself the following:
a) What will my argument be?
b) What will be the main points of the argument?
c) In what order should these points be introduced and discussed?
d) What evidence, eg data, case studies, authoritative opinion, can be
used to support each point?
The outcome should at least, be a dot-point plan that indicates the structure
of your argument.
Creating a structure involves leaving some things out. Use your judgment
to determine what are the most significant and relevant points to include.
5.5.3 Drafting  Your  Essay
In writing your draft, remember that an essay is not just a ‘cut and paste’
job where you take one idea from one author and further ideas from other
authors before joining them all together. Rather, it should be built around
the structure that you have developed in your outline. Use the ideas of
other authors to support your points, not to construct the entire essay. You
need to remember that it is desirable to put any counter views into the essay
so it is important to collect information from both perspectives.
Leave time to reflect on your work and then review it.
5.5.4 The  Final  Draft
This is the refined version of your earlier drafts – the one you hand in for
marking! For you to arrive at this point you need to critically edit your
earlier drafts. Pay particular attention to:
a) the clarity of your expression;
b) correct spelling, punctuation and grammar; and
c) accurate referencing.
5.6 Essay  Content
5.6.1 Preamble
The essay should include the following in this order:
a) Introduction.
b) Body of the essay (which is made up of themes answering the
question).
c) Conclusion.
d) Reference List.
e) Appendices (where appropriate).

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5.6.1.1 Introduction
This section should:
a) explain the aims, purpose and structure of the essay;
b) introduce the reader to the ideas being developed;
c) explain how you interpret the topic and how you intend to
approach it in the essay; and
d) defines any key terms and concepts.
5.6.1.2 Body  of  the  Essay
Essays are written in continuous prose, ie without breaking into
sections with headings. It should possess a clear, concise and logical
structure.
On occasions, you may be asked to include headings to aid clarity.
Where headings are used, follow the conventions outlined for reports.
This section forms the bulk of the essay. You should develop and
present your ideas and argument in a logical, structured manner.
Write in paragraphs which means in collections of three or more
sentences. Paragraphs are key organising devices that signal to the
reader how your ideas have been arranged. Make sure each
paragraph is focused on one point or an aspect of one point. The first
sentence of each paragraph is often used to show what the paragraph
is about. Subsequent sentences expand / explain / provide evidence
for the lead sentence. Each paragraph should flow from the previous
one and lead to the next one. Paragraphs are linked through the ideas
being logically connected. This shows your ability to present a
reasoned argument.
Make use of the words which provide this connection such as
therefore, hence, whereas, however, in addition, furthermore, on the
other hand, consequently, as well as, and so on.
Use the last sentence of a paragraph to provide the link between that
paragraph and the next paragraph.
You should note that an essay is not just a list of points or facts
without them being explained and linked together as a cohesive
paper. Essays with an over reliance on dot points will lose marks.
Avoid cluttering your discussion with excessive quotations. Overuse
of quotations usually makes an essay less readable and the thread of
your argument can be lost. Remember that your task is to
communicate with readers and convince them that your ideas about
the topic are both valid and well thought out. Quotations should be
used sparingly and then only to highlight or illustrate major points.

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Overuse of quotations, or even paraphrased sections from the works
of other writers, can also lead to your essay failing to meet one of key
assessment criteria, namely that it presents your ideas and opinions on
the topic.
Tables and Figures are not usually used in essays. Where you wish to
use them, you should follow the same conventions for them as stated
in the previous Written Reports Section.
5.6.1.3 Conclusion
This is a relatively brief section in which you draw together the
threads of the previous discussion and round off your argument.
Concluding comments should be directly relate to the topic and
highlight the major points which have emerged from your discussion
in an original way. Furthermore, show how the findings relate to
your stated intentions in the introduction. Point out any interesting
implications and/or identify any action that should be taken in the
future.
5.6.1.4 Reference  List
Your essay must be accompanied by a list of references that
accurately indicates all the books, articles in journals, and other
written sources that you have actively used in writing your essay.
The sources of all ideas, opinions or data that have been borrowed,
quoted or otherwise used must be acknowledged in the body of the
essay.
The Reference List is to be in accordance with the APA Referencing
Style. For further details, please refer to the GU Referencing Tool
and select APA 6 at:
http://www.griffith.edu.au/library/workshops-training/self-help-resources/referencing
5.6.1.5 Appendices
These are rarely included in essays but if this is necessary follow the
same conventions as for reports.
5.7 Essay  Format  and  Style
All essays are to conform to the following format and style conventions.
a) Submitted on quality A4 paper.
a) All text to be in Arial or Times New Roman 12 point fonts.
b) All text to be one and a half line spacing.
c) A 2.5 cm margin is to be provided on the left hand side of the page.
d) All pages are to be numbered on the bottom right hand side of the page.
Numbering is to be in Arabic Numerals eg 1, 2, 3, etc.

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e) The essay should be free of spelling, typographical, punctuation and
grammatical errors.
Before being submitted, the Essay is to be given a Title Page following the
procedures for a Written Report as shown in Appendix 1.
5.8 Word  Count
A word count will be set for most assigned tasks while studying with Griffith
Aviation. You are to make a serious effort to observe the word count for the
three following reasons:
a) A good report is one that is economical with words.
b) The word limit is an indication to you of the depth of investigation and
analysis required.
c) Word limits are often placed on work in the business and government
sectors. Busy decision makers often require the presentation of material
in very concise form; long reports are often not read.
A useful tip when planning your work is to allocate a certain number of words
to each section of your report. This will help keep you within the overall word
limit.
All written assignments are to be within 5% of the set word count and major
marking penalties will be applied for submitted assignments outside these
limits. Where a submitted document is less than 80% of the set word count, the
paper will not be marked and a mark of ‘zero’ will be recorded.
5.9 Essay  Checklist
Read your final draft carefully. Check the following points:
a) Have you answered the questions?
b) Is your viewpoint made clear from the start?
c) Have you developed your ideas in a logical sequence through the
assignment?
d) Have you acknowledged all sources of information correctly?
e) Have you checked your expression? Spelling? Punctuation?
f) Have you removed slang expressions?
g) Have you kept within the word limit?
h) Have you concluded your assignment suitably?
i) Is your Reference List complete?

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5 Assignment  Submission  Procedures
The Course Profile details the procedures students should follow regarding
assignment submission.
5.1 Methods  Where  SafeAssign  is  Not Mandated
Assignments where SafeAssign is not mandated are to be submitted through
one of the following methods:
a) Remote Assignment Printing on [email protected]
b) In person at the Library Lending desks on campus.
c) Post to Off Campus & Assignment Handling Services (off campus
students only).
Remote Assignment Printing Service is the preferred method of assignment
submission. If you intend submitting your assignment via this method, please
go to your course site on [email protected] and follow the instructions. For
further information please go to:
http://www.griffith.edu.au/ins/assignments/autosubmit/
To submit your assignment in person, please download an Assignment Cover
Sheet. Coversheets can be found at:
http://www.griffith.edu.au/ins/assignments/
You can submit your assignments in person at any Griffith Library located on
each of the campuses during business hours.
For off campus students, if you are unable to access the Remote Assignment
Printing Service you can post your assignment to OC&AHS at the address
shown at the top of the coversheet. However, it should arrive at Griffith
University by the due date and have an Assignment Cover Sheet. The contact
numbers for OC&AHS regarding submission of your assignments are +617
3735 7771 or fax: +617 3735 6585 or email:
[email protected].
5.2 Submitting  via  SafeAssign
When the Course Profile indicates, written assignments are to be submitted via
the SafeAssign process with the assignment having a Title Page.
Students are to use the SafeAssign tab on the course website on
[email protected] If the functionality has been enabled, students can submit
drafts and receive SafeAssign feedback on the written assignments prior to
submitting them for marking.
The Griffith Portal has explanatory information on SafeAssign.

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5.3 Return  of  Assignments
Students should refer to the Course Profile for details regarding return of
assignments.
At the postgraduate level it is customary to send an electronic marking sheet
and not return the written assignment unless special arrangements have been put
in place.

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6 General Standardisation2
6.1 Numbers  and  Time
6.1.1 Numbers

Rule(s) Example(s)
Numbers  from  one  to  nine  are
written  out  in  words.
Exceptions  (in  which  case  figures  are
used):
section,
page  number,
weight,
measure  or  percentage
Mr  Smith  had  threevery  active
daughters.
Section  3  of  the  Act
provides  …
Page  4  of  the  report  notes
that
The  parcel  weighed  5  kilos
There  was  an  increase  of
4%  in  applications  lodged
Numbers  above  nine  are  written  as
figures,  except  where  the  number  is
the  first  wordof  a  sentence.
There  were  11  applications.
Thirteen  applications  were
lodged.
If  the  number:
Is  lengthy;
is  in  a  passage  that  contains
other  numbers  which  are
expressed  in  numerals;
is  accompanied  by  a  symbol
and  opens  the  sentence;
it  may  be  better  torearrange  the
sentence.
The  Board  received  621
complaints.
Of  the  621  complaints
received,  531  related  to
under  award  pay  and  90
related  to  working  hours.
From  one  suburb,  a  total  of
$12,  684  was  collected.
Round  numbers  above  1  million  are
written  infull.
3  million,  56  million,  not  3m,  56m
Ordinal  numbers  are  generally
expressed  in  figures,  but  it  may  be
appropriate  to  spell  out  expressions.
46thparagraph
Sixth  sense

2 This chapter has been reproduced as an extract from the Style Guide, published by the Administrative
Appeals Tribunal of the Australian Government. The chapter is reproduced under the permission of
Part VB of the Copyright Act.

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6.1.2 Fractions

Rules(s) Example(s)
Standalone  fractions  are  spelt  out  in
full.
Three-­‐quarters
Isolated  fractions  and  ordinal
numbers  (first,  second,  and  so  on)
should  be  spelt  out  in  the  body  of  the
written  material.
one-­‐fifth  of  the  people
the  fifth  person  in  the  line
the  twentieth  century
Always  use  the  same  number  of
decimalplaces  for  all  decimal
quantities  that  are  being  compared,
whether  in  the  text  or  in  a  table.
0.50  and  0.75  instead  of  0.5  and
0.75
When  decimal  numbers  are  less  than
one,  and  greater  than  minus  one,  a
zero  should  be  placed  before  the
decimal  point.
0.1instead  of  .1

6.1.3 Percentages

Rule(s) Example(s)
The  symbol  %  orpercentfollowing
the  numeral  with  a  space.
40  %  or  40  percent
instead  of  40%  or  40percent
Do  not  spell  out  numbers  one  to  nine
when  using  as  a  percentage
9  %  instead  of  nine  %

6.1.4 Dates

Rule(s) Example(s)
Format  is  Day  Month  Year 24  November  2008
The  name  of  the  month  should  always
be  shown  in  full.
October  instead  of  Oct.
Words  are  preferred  where  numerals
might  otherwise  start  a  sentence.
The  first  of  January  was  the  first
day  ofthe  new  millennium.
Do  not  abbreviate  except  in  tables  if 04/10/1980.

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necessary  in  the  format  dd/mm/yyyy.
Time  periods 1990s
21  century
1999-­‐2004

6.1.5 Time

Rule(s) Example(s)
Format 7:20  am,  4:00-­‐4:30  pm
Am  and  pm  should  always  be  lower
case  and  withoutpunctuation.
am,  pm
Abbreviations  to  signify  local
standard  or  daylight  savings  times.
Abbreviation Application
EST Australian
Eastern  Standard
Time  in  Qld,  NSW,
Vic  and  Tas
CST Australian  Central
Standard  Time  in
NT  and  SA
WST Australian
WesternStandard
Time  in  WA
EDT Australian
Eastern  Daylight
Time  in  Qld,  NSW,
Vic  and  Tas
CDT Australian  Central
Daylight  Time  in
NT  and  SA
WDT Australian
Western  Daylight
Time  in  WA

6.1.6 Monetary  Amounts

Rule(s) Example(s)
Amounts  of  money  are  usually
expressed  as  numerals  combined
$150,  10c,  $99.20,  $10,234.09

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with  preceding  symbols  without  a
space.
A  comma  is  used  in  numerals
containing  four  digits  or  more
$6,400  instead  of  $6400.
Millions $1,  000,  000;  $3,  650,  589
Australian  currency  uses  the  dollar
symbol  preceding  the  number
without  any  intervening  space,  and  a
full  stop  for  the  decimal  point
$30.89
Amounts  that  are  less  than  a  dollar
are  shown  as  a  decimal  fraction  of  a
dollar  (always  with  a  zero  preceding
the  decimal  point).
$0.25  instead  of$.25
The  dollar  name  and  symbol  are  used
for  several  countries,  and  it  is
sometimes  necessary  to  distinguish
between  them.    This  will  be  the  case
when  referring  to  sums  of  money  in
both  Australian  and  other  dollars.
To  distinguish  between  Australian
dollars  and  dollars  of  other  countries,
the  coding  devised  by  the
International  Standardization
Organisation  (ISO)  is  used.
AUD10,000  (Australian
dollars)
GBP800,000  (British  Pound
Sterling)
EUR10,000  (Euro)

6.2 Abbreviations
In accordance with the Weights and Measures (National Standards)
Amendment Act 1984, most units of measurement used in Australia are those in
the International System of Units.
Units of measurement are always expressed in figures, and there is always a
space or non-breaking space between the number and the unit of measure, eg 4
kg, 27 km. Symbols are the same in singular and plural.
6.2.1 Abbreviations  in  Legislation
General rules:
A space should always be included between legislative reference and
accompanying number. E.g. Art 1
Do not use a full stop to abbreviate the reference.
Capitalise within sentences.
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When beginning a sentence, use the full word.

Type Single Two More than 2
Article Art 1 Art 1 and Art 2 Arts 1, 2, and 3
Chapter Ch 1 Ch 5 and Ch 6 Chs 5, 6, and 7
Clause cl 5 cl 5 and cl 6 cll 5, 6, and 7
Part Pt 1 Pt 1 and Pt 2 Pts 1, 2, and 3
Paragraph Para (a) Para (a) and Para
(b)
Paras (a), (b), (c)
Regulations reg 2 reg 2 and reg 3 regs 2, 3, and 4
Section S 3 s 3 and s 24
s 35(1) and (2)
ss 2, 3, and 4

6.2.2 Abbreviations  “Pty”  and  “Ltd”
The abbreviations “Pty” and “Ltd” are acceptable in relation to corporate
identities when citing cases within the text of a judgment.
6.3 Capitalisations
6.3.1 General
Modern usage is to make as little use of capitalization as possible. Capitals
should be avoided unless replacing a proper noun. [Griffith Aviation
practice is to use capitalisation for acronyms, group headings, 1
st order
headings, and initial capitalisation for other headings.]
6.3.2 Departments  and  Organisations
When names of this kind are abbreviated to the generic element for
subsequent references, capitalise.

Example(s) Reference
Administrative  Appeals  Tribunal The  AAT
the  Department  of  Finance  and
Administration
the  Department
the  Academy  of  the  Humanities the  Academy

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the  University  of  Western  Australia the  University

6.4 Spelling  and  Grammar
6.4.1 Dictionaries
If in doubt about the spelling of a word, the Macquarie Dictionary and the
Australian Oxford Dictionary agree on most aspects of spelling.
6.4.2 Australian  Spellings

Use Don’t Use Examples
co-o cooperate, coordinate co-operate, co-ordinate
the suffix “ise” the suffix “ize” legitimise, organise
the suffix “our” the suffix “or” Labour (except where
organisations use labor
such as the Labor Party)
program programme program

6.4.3 Compound  Words
Use the Macquarie Dictionary as the reference for spelling compound
words that may be open (eg case law), closed (eg headache) and
hyphenated (eg tape-recorder).
6.4.4 Punctuation: Use  of  Colon,  Semicolon  and  Comma

Punctuation Rule Example
To introduce a part of a
sentence that restates, explains
or exemplifies the preceding
part.
The judge looked aghast:
every member of the jury
was asleep.
Colon
Between a statement and
references cited in support.
The Act binds the Crown: s
3.
To introduce a list that
contains long or compound
phrases.
These documents must be
sent with:
(a) last year’s receipts: and
(b) a current work plan.

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Use between related
statements to link.
The hearing was packed; we
had to wait outside.
Semicolon
After a series or list of items
introduced by a colon.
The order is subject to the
following provisos:
(a) lunch is not included;
(b) you must supply your
own flippers; and
(c) orange hats shall not be
worn.
Never use before “and” or “or”
in a series.
The amendments affect ss 6,
7 and 8.
Comma
Use before a coordinating
conjunction to avoid
confusion.
The purpose of voidable
transactions regime is to
avoid this, yet the present
law permits it.
Never use immediately before
parenthesis.
Use specific references
wherever possible
(including references to
unreported judgments).
Use preceding abbreviations
such as eg, ie or etc but not
after.
eg: providing somebody
with a service, eg use of
skill or labour

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7 References
Academic Integrity. (2010). Retrieved March 11, 2010, from
http://www.griffith.edu.au/academic-integrity
Administrative Appeals Tribunal, (2009).
Style Guide, Australian Government,
Canberra
Betts, K. & Seitz, A. (1994).
Writing: Essays and Research Reports.
Melbourne, Victoria: Thomas Nelson Australia.
Grellier, J. & Goerke, V. (2006).
Communication Skills Toolkit: Unlocking the
Secrets of Tertiary Success.
Melbourne, Victoria: Cengage Learning.
Guidelines for the preparation and presentation of written assignments. (2009).
Department of Tourism, Leisure, Hotel & Sport Management, Griffith
University.
Mahony, D. (2003).
Writing for meaning: The student assignment guide.
Brisbane, Queensland: Faculty of Education, Griffith University.
Oliver, P. (1996).
Writing: Essays & reports: A guide for students. London:
Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.
Turner, K., Ireland, L., Krenus, B. & Pointon, L. (2008).
Essential Academic
Skills.
Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
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Appendix  1
TITLE PAGE – GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY ASSIGNMENTS
The following format is to be used for the Title Page for Griffith University Assignments.
GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY
GRIFFITH AVIATION

COURSE CODE <insert course code>
COURSE TITLE <insert course title>
ASSESSMENT ITEM NUMBER <insert assessment item number>
ASSESSMENT TITLE <insert assessment title>
DUE DATE <insert due date>
STUDENT NAME <insert student name>
STUDENT ID NUMBER <insert student id number>
COURSE CONVENOR / TUTOR
NAME
<insert course convenor / tutor
name
>

!
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Appendix  2
TITLE PAGE – EXTERNAL REPORTS
The following format is to be used for the Title Page for Reports that are external to
Griffith University.
Postgraduate students may wish to use this format at the Title Page for 7507BPS Aviation
Management Research Paper given that these papers may have an external audience. In
this case, the student number is to be included after the student name as author.
GRIFFITH UNIVERSITY
GRIFFITH AVIATION
<insert Title of Report>
by
<insert Author(s)>
Report to:
<insert name of agency>
<insert date>
Completed as (part of) the requirements for <insert Name of Course> in the <insert
Name of Program>