Understanding Sustainability Concept

Literature Review

Understanding Sustainability Concept

Sustainability defines how the biological systems actually persist and usually remain diverse and productive. The 21st century defined sustainability beyond the narrow parameters and aspects (Hayman, James, Popplewell & Lewis, 2016). The term sustainability means the need for the development of sustainable models necessary for the planet Earth as well as the human race to survive. It is the balancing act (Silvius, 2018). As per the “report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future” presented in 1987 by the United Nations, the sustainable development accomplishes and suitably meets the needs of present level without compromising the health and well-being of future generations as supported by Chrisman, Chua, De Massis, Minola & Vismara (2016) and DeTienne, McKelvie & Chandler (2015). Sustainability is the overall accumulation of concepts and views that respect the universal human rights, culture of peace, economic justice, and nature (Chrisman et al., 2016). For the majestic global organizational goals, it is necessary to re-examine the policies in terms of the environmental protection, economic practices, and social responsibilities (Zhitlukhin & Ziemba, 2016). Sustainability is a challenge and searching for new funds or replacing the foundation grant is only one section of project sustainability (DeTienn et al., 2015). To be true sustainability is not only about money, but about innovative ideas and concepts. Sustainability is the capability of the project and its team to consistently maintain its benefits, services, and operations for life-time (Silvius, 2018). When the company is efficient in incorporating “green” project mentality, the project presents positive impacts rippling all throughout the company representing enhanced efficacy, increased employee morale, decreased waste, and improved project cost-effectiveness (Zhitlukhin & Ziemba, 2016).

Silvius (2018) suggested that sustainability from the point of view of a NGO refers to the continuation of performing and delivering project benefits towards the primary target group after getting funds from the donor termination. In simple words, sustainability concept means to maintain and continue the efforts even after the funds finish (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017). Silvius & Planko (2017) demonstrated that one needs to acknowledge that sustainability needs long term planning for facilitating diverse donor engagement and to enhance the institutional capacity of population target. Thus, the sustainability planning is defined as the imperative step for the nonprofits because it prepares the company for delivering the positive outcomes even in the absence of their primary funds (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017).

Martens & Carvalho (2017) reported that several sustainability aspects needs consideration while planning this concept for the company. Both the non-profit and profit organizations need to think about financial sustainability, programmatic sustainability and organizational stability of the organization (Martens & Carvalho, 2017). The financial sustainability defines the process of assuring the steady funds flow and revenue generation for the maintenance and continuation of the organizational work (Silvius & Planko, 2017). The organizational or institutional Sustainability means assuring accurate working of the company which was or were developed as the project part. The programmatic sustainability refers to the continuation of the organizational projects as well as programs in the absence of support from donors (Silvius, 2018).

Steps towards Sustainability

Prior the sustainability plan, following steps are necessary to consider for better outcomes.

  • Long term vision The project team need to define where it sees the company after 5-10years. It needs a thorough cognitive projection (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017). When the long-term vision of organization is clear, it is easy to draft several things necessary for achievement. Through the use of facts and data, the team can explain the donor regarding the long term goals and associated procedures and required resources for success (Silvius, 2018).
  • Integrating sustainability in every company projectIt is advisable to always integrate sustainability concepts in the project specifically from the start-up point (Silvius & Planko, 2017). This assists in developing strong and long-term partnerships with relevant stakeholders through an early project development stage. It also assures that when the primary funding terminates there is the availability of a strong support for project continuation (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017).
  • Communication & Outreach The need is to have a strong communication strategy for better and timely sharing of the project results with the huge audience (Martens & Carvalho, 2017). This results in well documented project outcomes to assist people in attaining support from a wide range of donors and stakeholders. Well, the properly thought communication strategy is useful in preventing the last minute rush for the donor search (Silvius, 2018).
  • Involvement of the key stakeholdersOne more and essential step in assuring sustainability is to encourage the key stakeholders’ participation and involvement within the project development (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017). Being a part of the project activities, one can surely initiate the multi-stakeholder dialogue workshops for involving the most relevant project people on time with transparency (Silvius & Planko, 2017).
  • Diversifying the funding sources The key aspect of sustainability is surely to diversify the donor base and for developing the long term partnerships with the key project donors (Silvius & Planko, 2017). This is necessary for supporting the project team in its endeavour. It is not just to look at the traditional donor agencies, but also to explore the advanced and new opportunities (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).
  • Creation of the resource inventory The sustainability in every project is incompetent if there is no inventory of the physical resources which must be kept by the company to have after the project ends (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017). It is also because certain equipments and devices bought during the project are usable in the future like the recorder, camera, training modules, and furniture. They have their use even after the expiration of grant (Martens & Carvalho, 2017)
  • Using the donor database The project team need to enlist few donors from the available donor database who are most probable in funding the project (Carvalho & Rabechini, 2017). Thus, it is advisable to be in touch with these agencies to make them aware of the project and timely changes. This helps in building long-term trust and mutual relationships (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).

Sustainability Attributes

  • Continuous operational facility & maintenanceWhen project succeeds in achieving essential budget support, it enables maintaining necessary facilities. It is also named as the logistics attribute (Zhitlukhin & Ziemba, 2016).
  • Consistent community involvement (for action stimulation and better cost recovery) also termed as community attribute This attribute consists of the projects which includes the communities which presents the success of the project for proper maintenance of community needs and their most desirable participation (Chrisman et al., 2016).
  • Consistent flow of total benefits/ economic attribute In the project which are economy-based, they face varying conditions and this demands change in cost and benefits which needs proper balance (Silvius, 2018). This attribute assures the effectiveness of project with guarantee to have better financial and economic returns. This sometimes requires retention payments for the workforce to be committed to the project and its people (DeTienn et al., 2015).
  • Institutional constancyThis attribute of sustainability is to define the project stability which determines the project considerations in terms of most appropriate institutional needs. This helps in the provision of improved project management and support as required (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).
  • Equitable sharing & distribution of project benefits/ equity attribute It is the attribute which demonstrates when the project has to incorporate the mechanisms guaranteeing the equitable access towards the project advantages and enhanced distribution on consistent note (Silvius & Planko, 2017). After all a project is sustainable when it provides equal rights and benefits to all its stakeholders (Sánchez, 2015).
  • Environmental stability and consistent maintenance/ environmental attribute This attribute is focused on the determination of the project consideration for various environmental implications and prospects to prevent the negative impacts it could have on the surrounding environment (Zhitlukhin & Ziemba, 2016). This is to save the environment and help the company in the presentation of the project to be an economically viable and long-lasting project (Hayman et al., 2016).
  • Building lasting partnershipsTo understand the environment wherein the company or project operates is the key towards its longevity (Martens & Carvalho, 2017). Thus, it is essential to work with the local partners and strong global partners hands-on to avoid the financial crisis and resource shortage. To work in partnership also helps in managing the financial climate and better planning ahead (DeTienn et al., 2015).
  • Continuous Communication attributeWhen the people involved in the project understand what they are involved in with regular updates, they can participate with the real of their self with the long-lasting and positive impacts over the local communities and individuals (Martens & Carvalho, 2017). This helps in keeping stakeholders in support through ups and downs. The transparent and consistent communication is necessary for project success in a true sustainable manner (Hayman et al., 2016).

Exit Strategies- Real-time Organizational Cases


The CPL business consultants is a well known company in providing consultancy on markets, strategies, and technology for the business transactions and development, specialising in food, animal feed, dietary supplements, health and nutrition, petfood, fine chemicals, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics ingredients. This company presented an appreciable exit strategy process for global companies (CMC, 2015). CMC (2015) stated that most of the business owners usually approach the organizations from the income perspective with minute importance to the long-term exit strategy. Even if they approach other consultants and professionals like brokers and accountants to sell or exit their businesses, they receive a feedback which is neither holistic nor grounded on their personal goals (Bullen, LeFave & Selig, 2017). With CPL, the high-level agricultural and scientific food industry consultancy, CMC Partner named Derek Allen was capable in providing a unique insight which altered the founder’s way of company management for preparing the owners for the respective eventual retirement (CMC, 2015).

The activities of CPL were grounded over the count of separate companies like high-level headhunting, recruitment, and consultancy within the scientific food and agriculture industry. Its business was wholly dependent on individuals (CMC, 2015). There were only two founders who used to do the most of sales and representation of recruitment and consultancy arms. Both these founders were in 50’s age category and this was the time to decide about CPL’s future. Its future was solely resting on one or two people (Bullen et al., 2017). It was complex to define how the company will continue after the departure of these people. It could lead to business closure if they retire. Nonetheless, huge money reposing for business investment, and the dire requirement of funds by founders after business closure defined that business closure is the viable option for CPL (CMC, 2015). This led to the probability of selling the business, but CPL was highly dependent on the management and skills of the founders. This defined taking long time for building business being ready for this buyout (Bullen et al., 2017). CPL also thought of succession, to grow appointed staff members for having more business say and to be ready for taking over management if such day comes. This was also a problem, because right staff was available with huge interest in succession, but with no funds for buying out founders (Bullen et al., 2017). If third parties would have been used as advisors, this would have restricted the company view. Even the accountants wouldn’t have been capable for exploring the alternatives to succession-planning (CMC, 2015). The brokers were involved in business sale. None of them had the management and HR skills for nurturing the client with a suitable outcome for all. Thus, the CMC Partners were positioned for guidance (CMC, 2015).

The company decided the approach of business exit strategy. The succession issues might not have been considered if not from Derek Allen’s input. CPL business review led Derek to ask critical questions at accurate time and he acted as the catalyst providing the CPL founders time for review of their needs and steps for succession (CMC, 2015). CMC Partners presented the holistic business view with the experience of selling and growing companies. CPL thought over the best format of business, ways to maximise the succession chances, and ways to generate retirement value (Bullen et al., 2017). The decision was cutting off point that created a date to define share options for senior management being an element of the incentive scheme (CMC, 2015). Its target was to hold 50% business shares completely owned by the senior management in a decade’s time, just in time to have retirement plan beginning for the founders (CMC, 2015). The shares’ conditions and the Shareholder’s Agreement to protect the minority shareholder rights assured that employees are involved and feels motivated by this change. The option was to make them feel like the company owners (Bullen et al., 2017). It led to an imperative condition of shares to be owned absolutely after the gap of five years providing employees with a kind reason to stay with CPL for longer period. This exit strategy helped the senior management to own 46% of CPL shares within a decade and even the founders started their retirement plans (CMC, 2015). Through the appointed successors’ support, CPL agreed to have a progressive buyout plan, altering the company ownership and providing founders with a long-term retirement income. This approach proposed that time is needed for HR management to assure that the alterations are accepted by the people internally (CMC, 2015). It clearly defined that if the business success relies extremely over the founders, the exit strategies require in position as early as plausible assuring smooth transition for company value growth, and willingness to have a competent successor, and to give funds required for permitting founders to hold happy and comfortable retirement (CMC, 2015).

Toyota Australia

The businesses across the world usually encounter challenges while incorporating the ethical practices in daily operations, but Toyota Australia encountered a time when it was facing a new test for corporate social responsibility (CSR) standard maintenance while preparing for closing the doors (Cooper, 2015). In 2014 early, Toyota Australia announced to end car manufacturing at the Altona plant situated in Victoria by the end of 2017 where 1000s of people were to lose jobs. Toyota also defined that it still holds the CSR commitment in spite of the conflicting circumstances (Hew, Perrons, Washington, Page & Zheng, 2018). Toyota was clear that 2500 people at this plant would be losing jobs (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). Toyota will be importing cars and people will but, so it will still be the biggest car seller. Thus, CSR is its commitment for sure. Its priority was to support the retrenched workers (Cooper, 2015).

Thus, Toyota developed a DRIVE program to assist the employees in transition to new careers (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). This program worked on providing every employee with the career counsellor to develop an individual career plan till exit period and even 6months post-exit to a year’s time to help them develop a career plan (Cooper, 2015). The counsellor appointed will look at the desires of the employees and look for courses and skills in the employee. Toyota also decided to pay them with money for the required training to fit into new career plan or for upskilling as long as it can be done outside the working hours (Hew et al., 2018). In the DRIVE’s first phase, employees attended the Altona and Port Melbourne plant-based centres and head offices to discuss with case managers about the future plan (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). In DRIVE’s second phase, they started getting referrals for extra training as well as assistance programs. Toyota represented a CSR based exit strategy. It has presented a unique example globally (Cooper, 2015). By 2015’s end, over 50% of employees were done with their career plans. Toyota was clear that the most of the retrenched workers will be seeking newer employment opportunities and few will be retiring or thinking of self-employment. This company was clear on facilitating this defined process (Hew et al., 2018). Toyota adopted a respectful transition where this company believed in respectfully transitioning its employees, making them number one (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). Toyota Australia started this plan 3years before its closure which was enough to develop new ideas, new careers, and putting them into practice. This made it clear that no employer is this much kind to pay for employee’s new career courses and training (Cooper, 2015).

This exit strategy of Toyota has attained kudos from key workers union. This company also involved Dave Smith (Australian Metal Workers Union vehicles division’s national secretary) to transition workers (Cooper, 2015). If a company wants to shut itself, but at the same doing core efforts to resettle the employees, there is nothing wrong. This company helped the employees to think about their life after the Toyota closes (Hew et al., 2018). But, another challenge was waiting. There has been lot of literacy and language problems at Toyota. Several of its members were belonging to non-English speaking backgrounds (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). Thus, Toyota decided to put in efforts to help them bring literacy, numeracy, and language to a point where the employee can easily start addressing upskilling programs (Hew et al., 2018). Toyota Australia again presented its unique features. It presented the wish to continue its external CSR commitments that includes the community legacy project (Cooper, 2015). Toyota left certain form of community legacy for Altona people where Toyota had its factory several years. Toyota respectfully presented its gratitude for the people of Altona and wanted to leave the positive company mark for memorable remarks. Toyota decided to make huge contribution towards the Kororoit Creek project with the existing development strategy till the year 2030 (Hew et al., 2018). This project is sensible as this project runs directly behind the Toyota plant. This led to a connection and even Toyota had several tree plantings along the creek for a long time (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). Thus employees and community feel connected to this legacy. Moreover, the creek goes through Hobson’s Bay with joint project in name to fix natural environment (Cooper, 2015).

Toyota presented another CSR approach in its exit strategy for the community sustainability. It also decided to fund the first three stages of upgrading the missing parts of the bike trails linking north and south for easy travelling from Altona to the city along Federation (Cooper, 2015). This piece of the CSR puzzle was another huge step of exit strategy. Toyota donated $1.8 million for this $12 million project of fixing up the section within Hobsons Bay (Cooper, 2015). This gave an opportunity and enough time to the council to find extra donations from state and deferral governments to initiate the project. In spite of ending this manufacturing journey, Toyota has been able to grab great employee and community response towards this legacy project (Hew et al., 2018). Toyota is also thinking to look for the community legacy project in terms of Sutherland Shire in Sydney wherein this company will also close the sales and marketing office and shifting it to Port Melbourne (Gmelin & Seuring, 2018). This case of vibrant and responsible exit strategy of Toyota Australia has made it name in history. It has balanced the loss of jobs for people and CSR initiatives for better space for all (Cooper, 2015).

Research Methodology

This research study has the qualitative research design application which is quite efficient in attaining the core knowledge and insight about the research topic with greater reliability and better accuracy and its probability (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). The qualitative research design provides in-depth and details explanation of the topic related data as it helps in deep looking into the data through subject feelings, behaviours, and attitudes. This design is also useful to create openness which encourages the people to expand over their responses which helps in opening to newer topic areas which are not initially considered or determined (Taylor, Bogdan & DeVault, 2015). This design also supports the process of simulating studied people’s individual experiences as it provides detailed picture and builds over the fact about why people act within some ways and why they give such feelings about the defined actions (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). This design is also best for preventing pre-judgments. If it gets used with quantitative data collection process, it is efficient enough for explaining why certain response has been given. Creativity actually becomes a desirable quality in this qualitative research design. The qualitative research is also capable in developing the industry-specific insights (Taylor et al., 2015).


The sample includes the project managers of 8 different companies of Australia. The sample will include both male and female project managers. The total number of participants in this sample will be 30 to be selected randomly to avoid any bias and to provide every person equal opportunity to involve. It is necessary to use the simple random sampling method. This is the method which is defined as the fairest method of the sampling technique. This is also the easy method of sample assembling process. This method is also efficacious because it is capable to represent the entire population. Theoretically, the only thing which is truly applicable to compromise the representativeness is termed as luck. If anyhow the sample is not capable to represent the population, it leads to the random variation that is defined as the key sampling error (Creswell & Creswell, 2017).

Inclusion criteria defined for the sample population recruitment:
Working at the position of project manager from about 3 or more than 3years in the same company. Must have been the project leader for at least 2 projects in the previous 6 months. Capable to speak, write, and understand English language with fluency.

(Taylor et al., 2015)

Data Collection Method

The defined research paradigm will be focused on holding two kinds of data collections that includes primary and secondary data collections. The primary data will be gathered with the application of the semi-structured survey process (Kieras & Just, 2018). The semi-structured survey method is efficient as it allows the participants to be open about their views, ideas, and experiences, and at the same time it also keeps the participants to the pin point in areas where the need arises (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). Further, the secondary data will be gathered with the process of doing online and offline research work from government documents, organizational project management and exit reports, journal articles, research papers, news articles, global organizational cases, analytical reports, and related documents from the period of 2010 to 2019 (Kieras & Just, 2018).

This research paper is applying the semi-structured survey as this is defined as the time and cost effective data collection method in qualitative research design in the social-science and entrepreneurial fields (Letourneau, 2015). This is the type of survey method that is quite flexible for all the participants and there is probable option of getting honest responses from the participants. This research survey questionnaire will be the key instrument of collecting primary data which is self-prepared by consulting the standardized organizational surveys with a good combination of efficacious close-ended and open-ended questions for representing the responses of the participants with comfort, honesty and complete autonomy in their respective surrounding (Letourneau, 2015).

Data Analysis

The research study is grounded over the thematic analysis platform. This analysis procedure is named as one amongst the most efficacious and most commonly used analysis methods. It is extremely aligned with the qualitative research paradigm (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). This analytical procedure is focusing over the procedure of in-depth examination, accurate enlightenment and pinpointing the recording patterns known as the “themes” for the collected data (Letourneau, 2015). Lindlof & Taylor (2017) suggested that the themes are the patterns which are found all across the separate data sets which are essential to describe the entire research phenomenon. This is also linked with the specified research question.

The data collected will be further analyzed in a systematic way with the placement of the more focused aspect of data interpretation and its presentation o be aligned with the calculation of frequency, the percentage analysis, and representing the results in the form of interactive bar graphs/ pie charts that are most suitable for more data understanding (Taylor et al., 2015). This will be attained via the accurate implementation of the project management software of Primavera software solution. This software will support better achievement of in-depth results and experiences of the participants and secondary data analyzed (Lindlof & Taylor, 2017). Even this project management software is able to help in timely and protocol-defined planning, management, and organization of the resource tools and development of the resource estimates. This is the software which will also support efficacious management of the project estimations with cost control, planning control, schedule preparation, and budget management (Kieras & Just, 2018).

Project Management

PRIMAVERA software

This research project is quite complex. With the financial shortage and the economic uncertainty, the project and its team members gets fresh and complex degree of several types of pressures (Kohli, 2017). This makes the team as well as the project management tough to execute. The project and business management is making struggle to have a rapid reaction towards the markets which are fluctuating and demands that are consistently altering. Thus, the executives need higher visibility for the projects (Kumar, Shahpur, Maneeth & Brijbhushan, 2017). The entire distribution team requires collaboration and coordination over the clock with good ability of navigating the team tasks successfully for better project lifecycle management. In present time, both the project and the program managers need elements and equipments to deliver the necessary project insight efficaciously (Oracle, 2018). It assists in better maintenance of the project schedule and the associated budget commitments. The managers also need the ability of integrating the project resources with various involved other departments and better working at different locations where the team members are working to assure timely project success (Kohli, 2017). This is similarly applicable in the research projects. The Primavera enterprise project portfolio management solution of Oracle is the best choice for this research study to enable better management. This will help in driving the intellectual management of the entire project (Oracle, 2018). This research project is fully prepared to use the Primavera project management solution. It will assist in making improved portfolio management decisions through the availability of end-to-end and real-time visibility for the relevant research project data (Kohli, 2017). This solution will support in the determination of the sufficient resource availability for the project and assuring that all the research team members hold appropriate skills to accomplish the entire research work (Kumar et al., 2017). This Primavera software solution will help in timely evaluation of the various research project risks as well as rewards associated with the project. The entire research team will get timely update about the research tasks and its progress and ways to control and collaborate to attain the research success (Oracle, 2018). It will help in proper project driving over time and in the proposed budget. This will be accomplished with proper and technical research designing and quality standards (Kohli, 2017).

This research project will use Oracle Primavera P6 (latest version) version to have unparalleled processing, monitoring, insight, and control towards the planners, stakeholders, schedulers, and project managers with equal involvement and updates (Kohli, 2017). The software scope is ever-changing, with ever-growing system for making activities and tasks accomplished (Oracle, 2018). The steps with this project management software becomes simple to access and apply as planning, organizing, securing, and managing resources required for accomplishing the on-time and in-budget project. This software is needed to attain all the project goals and considering the project constraints simultaneously (Kumar et al., 2017).

5 Phases of Project Management Lifecycle

Phase 1: Initiation

This phase includes the first start-up procedure for the project. This will be the first phase wherein project purpose and scope will be defined, further justified, and implemented (Oracle, 2018). During this phase, project team members and managers will be appointed, project feasibility will be studied, documentation will be connected, and project office will be set-up (Kohli, 2017). The Primavera software will streamline the initiation phase with the offer of document storage, configuring the access to project team members, and providing complete phase review prior the beginning of the planning phase (Kumar et al., 2017).

Phase 2: Planning

This phase is defined as the most crucial project management lifecycle stage. It is the phase wherein the project documents gets finalized within the Primavera P6 software and provided with the project team members involved in the project accomplishing (Kohli, 2017). The planning phase includes the steps of project planning, resource planning, financial planning, quality planning, and acceptance and communication planning (Kumar et al., 2017). Within Primavera P6, this phase begun with the creation of the work breakdown structure, formation of a cost loaded schedule, project resource assignment, and baseline establishment (Kohli, 2017).

Phase 3: Execution

It is the phase where the work begins and accomplished. When the project planning is settled, project construction begins and the procedures get compared against the baseline all across the project building (Kumar et al., 2017). The research project team members will be using Primavera P6 software for reporting research work in progress, presenting status of the schedule, comparing research projected beginning/ finish date (Oracle, 2018), comparing projected cost as per actually defined cost, and comparing research projected resource utilization against the defined resource utilization (Kohli, 2017).  

Phase 4: Control

This phase in the research project management life cycle defines the duties of looking at the research results and defining if the research project is on track or going behind the schedule. Further, the schedule will be analyzed and research project will be evaluated (Kumar et al., 2017). The researchers will also compare the baseline schedule in terms of the actual schedule and will be making the recommendations for enhancing the research project health (Oracle, 2018). In case the research is behind the decided schedule, the research project team members will be applying the software and modify the project data to re-forecast the schedule (Kohli, 2017). The software’s Claimdigger functionality will be used for outlining the alterations made between the two defined schedule updates (Kumar et al., 2017).

Phase 5: Closing

It is the final phase in the research project management life cycle to close the research project (Oracle, 2018). The research project team members will be documenting the learned lessons, determine the project if it used the baseline for other research projects, and to deliver the final research result product to the associated stakeholders (Kohli, 2017).


  1. The software reduces the risk during the course of project plan, completion, and management procedures. This also helps in reduction in research project costs (Kohli, 2017).
  2. This software is easy to use in terms of schedule management and accessing. The data has to be input and is further automatically determined for any existing issues. It is multi-tier software (Jain & Mahajan, 2017).
  3. Primavera allows every research member to efficiently monitor the research project resources and its availability making better adjustments as pet the demands (Kumar et al., 2017).
  4. It also provides improved visibility with on-time data entry, tracking and analysis at one place (Oracle, 2018).
  5. It forecast the research project tasks and activities as per stakeholder needs and demands (Oracle, 2018).
  6. It also tracks the features and characteristics research reports with on-time accomplishment and baseline maintenance as per ethical guidelines (Kohli, 2017).
  7. It provides improved communication as the data is stored at one place can be viewed and analysed anywhere with the login and it also assures better scheduling and messaging (Oracle, 2018).
  8. Improved collaboration due to effective communication is possible (Oracle, 2018).
  9. It provides the project team responsibility within schedule building. It is because the research team members will be provided with duties to make schedules within software and turn into time-sheets (Kumar et al., 2017).


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Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2017). Qualitative communication research methods. Sage publications.

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Sánchez, M. A. (2015). Integrating sustainability issues into project management. Journal of Cleaner Production96, 319-330.

Silvius, G. (2018). Integrating sustainability into project risk management. Global Business Expansion: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, 330.

Silvius, G., & Planko, J. (2017). Sustainability in Business. In Sustainability in Project Management (pp. 25-38). Routledge.

Silvius, A. J., & Schipper, R. P. (2014). Sustainability in project management: A literature review and impact analysis. Social Business4(1), 63-96.

Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.

Zhitlukhin, M. V., & Ziemba, W. T. (2016). Exit strategies in bubble-like markets using a changepoint model. Quantitative Finance Letters4(1), 47-52.

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