Three categories of observational methods

  1. Carrie is two-years-old, but her speech can only be understood with difficulty by her parents. Her atypical speech would distinguish her from other children her age; thus, this type of difference would be referred to as a(n) __ difference.

a. endogenous

b. exogeneous

c. quantitative

d. qualitative

  1. Experts learn about human development by observing natural phenomena, conducting experiments, and publishing their results so others can evaluate their methods. This illustrates that human development

a. is interdisciplinary.

b. is multidirectional in nature.

c. occurs due to exogeneous factors.

d. relies on scientific evidence.

  1. Human development progresses because it is based on

a. the ideas of authorities.

b. intuition and common sense.

c. scientific methods.

d. all of these.

  1. Through scientific research, it was found that

a. mothers are the cause of 72 different kinds of childhood conditions, such as autism.

b. children alter the parenting styles of their mothers and fathers.

c. scientific findings are no more reliable than old-fashioned common sense.

d. all of these are true.

  1. The factors that scientists manipulate or measure when they conduct a study are the _ in the study.

a. cohort effects

b. theories

c. explanations

d. variables

  1. In a study, _ can be anything that has more than one value, such as a person’s weight, the number of hospitalizations, and so forth.

a. cohort effects

b. theories

c. explanations

d. variables

  1. If you wanted to find out whether children whose families have frequently moved have more behavior problems, the number of “moves” and the number of behavior problems would both be

a. cohort effects.

b. variables.

c. theories.

d. hypotheses.

  1. Scientists use which of the following to gather information about the variables they are interested in?

a. observations

b. self-reports

c. archival data

d. all of these

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three categories of observational methods?

a. experimenter observation

b. naturalistic observation

c. participant observation

d. structured observation

  1. In __ observation, researchers watch people in real-world settings, such as shopping malls, day care centers, and schools with the goal being to collect information without interfering with or influencing people’s behavior.

a. naturalistic

b. participant

c. structured

d. unstructured

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