Explain why timers are needed in the Spanning Tree Algorithm. What problems occur if timers are not used? What can happen if a timer is set for too long of a timeout?
The Spanning Tree Protocol timers are there which includes the default values which is of different factors. Some of them are the “Hello Timer”. This is for handling the delay in the forward form with the timers that also includes the “MAX AGE TIMER”. Hello timer which is sent for the port is the one with the BRIDGE DATA. The default spanning tree protocol with the hello timer is for the 2-second timer. There is a need to make use of the delay timer with the interval of timing that is set for the listening as well are for the learn factors, with the default spanning-tree protocol which is set for the timer where there are forward timers of the delay. The max-age timer consists of the maximum length of time with the Spanning Tree Protocol with saving configuration that is for the handling of the timers for the handling of the delay timers (Zhong et al., 2015).
The configuration is based on handling the new configuration which is for the information that is stored, and the ageing timer tends to begin to run. The ageing timer starts with the configuration based on the IEEE 802.1D with the timers with the definition with the STP timer with the maximum number of the bridges which are found in between the points for the attachments for the end stations. The STP is for handling the timers which are including the three times which are the HELLO, MAX AGE. They are not mainly relating to the configurational standards for the local factors of configuration which includes the timers that are including the receiver for bridge. The effectiveness is based on the timer that is configuration that is for the root bridge for the STP which includes the loss of the root, where the new root starts for the imposing of the timer value for the local setup which is for the setup of the network as well (Moncla al., 2016). The timing out of the operations is for the signal with using the single handlers with setting alarm for the time interval with raising exception with working on the execution of functions with “scheduling a call”. The methods are for the set Timeout with allowing to run the function after the time interval.
Explain the algorithm used when two or more switches (bridges) are trying to determine who is the root node.
The STP enabling the switching with the messages that are for the root bridge, which is elected with the switch that is to determine the ports with the communication for the root bridge. The Root Bridge Election include the spanning tree enables the switching with the view for the entire network topology. The election is for the Root Bridge with the Bridge ID and sender Bridge ID with the six-byte MAC address header with the switch with the root port with the non-root with the switch with the selection (MUllai et al. 2017). The root port is mainly for the cost field with the switch port with the cost that is based on the port bandwidth with the bandwidth which is high. The path charges is then added for the receiving root path costs which are for handling the lower resulting root path costs which are on every cost for the non-root which is elected for the Root Port.
The Spanning Tree Protocol includes the computation process with the network segment with the Root Path Cost “with the Root Path cost” includes the blocking state. The switching and bridging is based on the fixed number of the inputs and the output. The shared media consists of the discussion about set of the links with the communication in the node that is set for the receiving of the incoming packets with the links. The functions are defined for referring with the switching and forwarding. The Interconnection OSI architecture with the all the network with addresses and then set for the 48-bit addresses that are for the Ethernet with the only requirement with the globally unique identifier (Hou et al., 2016). The assumption are based on identifying the input and the output which is for the switches and then for handling the number of ports and then determining the name.
Hou, P., Hu, W., Chen, C., & Chen, Z. (2016). Optimisation of offshore wind farm cable connection layout considering levelised production cost using dynamic minimum spanning tree algorithm. IET Renewable Power Generation, 10(2), 175-183.
Li, H., Mao, W., Zhang, A., & Li, C. (2016). An improved distribution network reconfiguration method based on minimum spanning tree algorithm and heuristic rules. International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, 82, 466-473.
Moncla, L., Gaio, M., Nogueras-Iso, J., & Mustière, S. (2016). Reconstruction of itineraries from annotated text with an informed spanning tree algorithm. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 30(6), 1137-1160.
Mullai, M., Broumi, S., & Stephen, A. (2017). Shortest path problem by minimal spanning tree algorithm using bipolar neutrosophic numbers. Infinite Study.
Zhong, C., Malinen, M., Miao, D., & Fränti, P. (2015). A fast minimum spanning tree algorithm based on K-means. Information Sciences, 295, 1-17.