Sharing Resources and Working with Accounts

Objectives
After completing this chapter, you will be able to:
• Configure file and printer sharing
• Manage user and group accounts
Guide to Operating Systems, 5th Edition 4
File and Printer Sharing
• The dominant file-sharing protocol is Server Message Block (SMB)
• The native Windows file-sharing protocol but is supported by Linux and MAC
OS
• Network File System (NFS) is the native Linux file-sharing protocol and
Windows can support NFS with the right software installed
• Printer sharing also uses SMB
• The native Linux printer-sharing protocol is line printer daemon/line printer
remote (LPD/LPR)
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Sharing Files in Windows
• File sharing in Windows is based on Client for Microsoft Networks
(client-side) and File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
(server side)
• To see these components
• View the properties of your network connection
• To share files in Windows
• You share the folder in which the files are located
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Sharing Files in Windows
• Methods to configure folder sharing in Windows:
• File Sharing Wizard—To start this wizard, right-click a folder and click Share
with, and click Specific people
• Advanced Sharing dialog box—To open this dialog box, click Advanced Sharing
in the Sharing tab of a folder’s Properties dialog box
• Shared Folder snap-in—a component of the Computer Management console
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Sharing Files in Windows
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Figure 10-3 The Advanced Sharing dialog box
Sharing Files in Windows
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Figure 10-4 The Shared Folders snap-in
Sharing Files in Windows
• In Windows, users are subject to both share and
NTFS permissions when accessing network files
• Share permissions are somewhat simpler than NTFS
permissions with only 3 options:
• Read
• Change
• Full Control
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Figure 10-5 Viewing share permissions
Sharing Files in Windows
• Accessing Shared Files in Windows
• When a user or application requests a resource a
redirector intercepts the request, examines it to
determine whether the resource is local (on the
computer) or remote (on the network)
• If local, redirector sends the requests to the local software
component
• If remote, redirector sends the request over the network
to the server hosting the resource
• Resource can be accessed as though it were local
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Sharing Files in Windows
• Accessing Shared Files in Windows (cont’d)
• The UNC path is used to access a shared folder with the
syntax \server-name\sharename
• In Windows, you can map a drive in order to simplify
access to shared folders
• Associates a drive letter with the UNC path to a shared folder
• Drives are usually mapped using File Explorer or the net
command
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Sharing Files in Windows
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Figure 10-6 Mapping a drive in File Explorer
Sharing Printers in Windows
• Components of a shared printer:
• Print device – Two basic types of print device:
• Local print device: Connected to an I/O port on a computer
• Network print device: A printer attached to and shared by another computer
• Printer – The icon in the Printers folder that represents print devices
• Print server – A Windows computer sharing a printer
• Print queue – Storage for print jobs awaiting printing
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Sharing Printers in Windows
• Benefits of using a shared printer:
• Access control
• Printer pooling
• Printer priority
• Print job management
• Availability control
• To configure a print server, you need to share a printer
• After installed, right-click the printer’s icon, click Printer properties, and then
click the Sharing tab
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Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
• Linux supports Windows file sharing by using SMB in a software
package called Samba
• You can share a folder using the Samba Server Configuration GUI tool
• Or by editing the /etc/samba/smb.conf file
• When you use the GUI tool to configure Samba
• Changes to the smb.conf file are made automatically
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Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
• Linux supports Windows file sharing by using SMB in a software
package called Samba
• You can share a folder using the Samba Server Configuration GUI tool
• Or by editing the /etc/samba/smb.conf file
• When you use the GUI tool to configure Samba
• Changes to the smb.conf file are made automatically
• Printer sharing in Linux is straightforward after Samba has been
installed
• When you create a new printer in Linux, it is shared automatically
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Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
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Figure 10-7 Sharing a folder in Linux
Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
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Figure 10-8 The smb.conf file
Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
• To access shared files via a Linux client
• Use the Files tool and browse the network
• Click on the computer that contains shared files and enter your credentials
• You can also click Connect to Server in the left pane and enter the path to the
server
• You must preface the path with smb: so Linux knows you are trying to connect to an SMB
share
• Linux also comes with a command-line program called smbclient for accessing
SMB shares
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Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
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Figure 10-9 Connecting to an SMB share in Linux
Sharing Files and Printers in Linux
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Figure 10-10 Connecting to an SMB share using smbclient
Sharing Files and Printers in Mac OS X
• Mac OS X also supports Windows file sharing using the SMB protocol
• To share a folder with another user, turn on File Sharing in System
Preferences by clicking Sharing
• In the Sharing dialog box, click File Sharing
• After you have chosen the folder you want to share and set the
permissions
• Click Options to turn on sharing for SMB if you want to share your files with
Windows or Linux users
• For Windows file sharing, enable sharing for each user
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Sharing Files and Printers in Mac OS X
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Figure 10-11 Sharing a folder in Mac OS X
Sharing Files and Printers in Mac OS X
• To share printers
• Use the same Sharing dialog box and click the box next to Printer Sharing
• To access shared files on another computer from a Mac OS X client,
click Go and then click Network
• When you see the computer that contains the shared files, click its icon and
enter your credentials
• You can also click Go, click Connect to Server, and enter the path to the server
• Preface the path with smb:
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Managing User and Group Accounts
• User accounts have two main functions:
• Provide a method for users to authenticate themselves to the network
• Provide detailed information about a user
• Group accounts are used to organize users so that assignment of
resource permissions and rights can be managed more easily than
working with dozens or hundreds of individual user accounts
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Account and Password Conventions
• In a large network, a scheme for naming user and group accounts as
well as network devices is crucial. Consider the following:
• Should user account names have a minimum and maximum number of
characters?
• Should the username be based on the user’s real name or if security is
important, should names be more cryptic?
• Some OSs distinguish between uppercase and lowercase letters. Should
usernames contain both as well as special characters?
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Account and Password Conventions
• Considerations for password naming conventions:
• Minimum length
• Complexity requirements – use of uppercase and lowercase along with special
characters
• User or administrator created
• Password change frequency
• Group account names should reflect the group membership or the
resource to which the group is assigned permissions
• Once naming conventions have been established, stick to them
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Working with Accounts in Windows
• When Windows is first installed, two users are created:
• Administrator and Guest (usually disabled)
• On a Windows Server 2016 domain controller
• The Guest account is disabled
• In Windows 10
• Both Administrator and Guest are disabled
• The Administrator account has full access to a computer
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Domain
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A Windows domain is a form of a computer network in
which all user accounts, computers, printers and other
security principals, are registered with a central database
located on one or more clusters of central computer
know as domain controllers. Authentications takes place
on domain controllers.
• Primary Domain Controllers
• Backup Domain Controllers
Working with Accounts in Windows
• Windows domain users are created in Active Directory Users and
Computers
• Also in Active Directory Administrative Center (ADAC), or with command-line
tools
• You can create folders for organizing users and groups (called
organizational units or OUs)
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Working with Accounts in Windows
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Figure 10-13 The Active Directory Users and Computers management console
Working with Accounts in Windows
To create a new user:
Select the folder where you
want to create the user.
Right-click the folder, point to
New, and click User. The New
Object – User Dialog box
opens
**Everything you create in
Active Directory is
considered an object
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Working with Accounts in Windows
• Next, you will need to set the
password with the following
options:
• User must change password
at next logon
• User cannot change password
• Password never expires
• Account is disabled
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Working with Accounts in Windows
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Figure 12-4 User properties in Active Directory (left) and in Windows 10 (right)
Working with Accounts in Windows
• Group accounts only require a name in order to be created (other
options can be configured)
• Group scope has three options:
• Domain local
• Global
• Universal
 Group type has two options:
 Security (default)
 Distribution
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Group Accounts
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Working with Accounts in Windows
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Working with Accounts in Windows
• Windows defines some default groups which have preassigned rights
that apply to group members
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Working with Accounts in Windows
• Special identify groups don’t appear as objects in Active Directory
Users and Computers
• But they can be assigned permissions and rights
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Working with Accounts in Linux
• User and group accounts in Linux are used for the same purpose as
Windows:
• User authentication and authorization
• Linux also has a default user who has full control over the system –
named root
• Most Linux administration takes place at the command line
• useradd newuser (replace newuser with the logon name for the user
account you’re creating)
• You will then be prompted to create a new password and enter the user’s full
name and other information
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Working with Accounts in Linux
• All users must belong to at least one group in Linux
• When a new user is created, a new group with the same name is also created and
the user is made a member
• Use the groupadd command to create groups
• To add users to a group:
• useradd username groupname
• To view the list of users
• Display the /etc/passwd file’s contents with the cat /etc/passwd command
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Working with Accounts in Linux
• Most Linux distributions have convenient graphical interfaces for
those who prefer a GUI to manage users and groups
• Many administrators prefer the command-line method for creating
users because they can import user information from a text file
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Working with Accounts in Linux
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Working with Accounts in Mac OS X
• In Mac OS X
• Create users and groups using the Users & Groups tool in
System Preferences
• To create a user, click the plus sign in the left pane of
Users & Groups, click the selection arrow next to
New Account to choose the type of account you
want to create
• Enter the user’s full name, account name, and password
• If user already has an iCloud account, you can use
the existing iCloud password
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Working with Accounts in Mac OS X
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Working with Accounts in Mac OS X
• You can choose the following account types:
• Administrator
• Standard
• Managed with parental controls
• Sharing Only
• Group
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Account Types
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Account Types
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Summary
• File and printer sharing is one reason business began to outfit
computers with network interfaces and network software
• File sharing in Windows is based on Client for Microsoft Networks on
the client side and File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks on
the server side
• When a user or application requests a resource a redirector intercepts
the request and examines it to determine whether the resource is
local or remote
Guide to Operating Systems, 5th Edition 50
Summary
• To understand how to work with and share printers in Windows, you
need to know the terminology for defining the components of a
shared printer
• Linux supports Windows file sharing by using SMB in a software
package called Samba
• Mac OS X also supports Windows file sharing using the SMB protocol
• If you share files and printers, you’ll usually want to control access to
those shared resources through user accounts, group accounts, and
permissions
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Summary
• You can specify many more user accounts properties in Active
Directory than you can in Windows 10
• User and group accounts in Linux have the same purposes as in
Windows: user authentication and authorization
• In Mac OS X, you create users and groups using the Users & Groups
tool in System Preferences
Guide to Operating Systems, 5th Edition 52
Class Work
• Make a group of 3
• Answer the following topics

  1. Server Message Block (SMB)
  2. NTFS Permission Options
  3. Components & Benefits of a Shared Printer
  4. User and Group Accounts
  5. Account and Password Conventions
  6. Group Accounts in Windows
  7. Linux Accounts

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