Referencing is a standard convention

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 1 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION
Referencing is a standard convention used by academic and professional communities to inform readers of
the sources of information used in a piece of written work. There are many referencing formats (e.g. Harvard,
APA, MLA, Vancouver) and it is critical that you use the one prescribed by the people you are writing for.
Check what style your College / topic requires. This quick guide covers how to reference common source
types using the American Psychological Association (APA) system (7th edition). More complete examples
of APA 7th referencing can be found here: https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples or see the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edn, 2019).
OVERVIEW
You must cite all your references in order to:
• acknowledge your sources
• allow the reader to verify the data / information
• allow the reader to consult your sources independently for their own purposes
• show the reader the depth and breadth of your reading.
References must be provided wherever you quote (use exact words), paraphrase (use other people’s ideas
using your own words), summarise (use main points of someone else’s opinions, theories or data) or use
other people’s data or figures. Your references may be sources of information such as books, periodicals,
websites, newspapers, government reports, legal cases, electronic recordings (CD, DVD, television) or
brochures. Note that some of these sources are considered more credible than others. The main elements
which need to be recorded in the APA system are the author, date, title and where the source is found.
The APA referencing system consists of two components, both of which are required:
1. THE IN-TEXT CITATION
This is the short in-text reference to the source of the information e.g. Maguire (2018) or (Maguire, 2018).
2. THE REFERENCE LIST
This is a list at the end of the written text of all references cited within. In this case it contains all the
details of the reference rather than the short version used in the in-text citation. One item might look like
this: Maguire, E. (2018). Girls, autobiography, media: Gender and self-mediation in digital economies. Springer.
KEY CHANGES BETWEEN APA 6th and APA 7th EDITIONS
The release of the APA 7th Edition has included a dedicated webpage providing referencing examples. The
following table is not a comprehensive list of changes. A more thorough guide to the requirements and
examples can be found: https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples.
NEW IN APA 7TH

IN-TEXT
REFERENCING
• 3 or more authors: list the first author’s surname followed by ‘et al.’ from the first
in-text citation of the text (unless this causes ambiguity with another reference,
e.g. two or more authors share the same surname)
• Secondary sources: include date of original work if known
• Guidelines for citing
+ Traditional Knowledge and Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples
+ quotations from research participants

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 2 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

REFERENCE LIST• Multiple authors: List surname and initials of up to 20 authors for each source.
If more than 20 authors, list the first 19, then ellipsis (…) and the final author
• E-books: publisher required but not the platform or device
• Location of publisher: no longer required
• URLS: ‘Retrieved from’ no longer required unless a retrieval date is required
• DOI: ‘DOI’ descriptor not required. Use DOI hyperlink for URL
APA 7
REFERENCING
EXAMPLES
Referencing categories have been expanded and templates examples provided,
including for social media, audio-visual materials, webpages, lecture notes, PowerPoint
slides etc. Online examples provided here:
https://apastyle.apa.org/blog/reference-examples

IN-TEXT CITATIONS
The APA’s in-text citations provide at least the author’s last name and the date of publication. For direct
quotations, a page number must be provided. This is also encouraged (but not required) if it will assist a
reader to locate a paraphrased passage in a long work such as a book. The location of this reference
depends on the form of the citation – see the first example on the following page.
In-text citations can take one of two forms – they can be a necessary part of the sentence (known as a
‘narrative citation’) using a signal phrase, which introduces the author or work, or they can stand separate
from it in brackets (parenthetical citation). Depending on which way you are using the citation, the placement
and content of the bracketed information changes. If the citation is an essential part of the sentence, then the
brackets go around the year only.
For example (narrative citation):
Smith (2003) emphasised the need for an understanding of soil condition.
Alternatively, it could be written with the citation placed at the end (parenthetical citation):
There is a critical need to understand soil condition (Smith, 2003).
In this form the brackets go around both the name and the
year. You can use both of these formats in your writing.
TENSES
When using narrative citations to discuss other authors’ work, the APA 7 style guide recommends using the
past or present perfect tense.
For example (past tense underlined):
Weinstein, Sumeracki and Caviglioli (2019) suggested that the notion of “learning styles” can limit students’ perceptions
of learning.
For example (present perfect underlined):
Studies have found that adult day health centres allow carers respite from caring for relatives with dementia (Gaugler
et al. 2003; Zarit et al. 2011).
When discussing the implications of results or previous statements, use the present tense. A guide to the use
of verb tense according to APA 7 style can be found here: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammarguidelines/grammar/verb-tense

SEE THE GUIDE ON INTEGRATING EVIDENCE

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 3 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION
Note: These items have been updated in APA 7th Edition and differ from APA 6th Edition.
The following section shows how in-text citations are used under different circumstances.
The table below refers to both hard copy and electronic sources. A guide to APA in-text citations can be found
at: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations

QUOTATION BASIC
FORMAT
Quotes should appear word-for-word the same as the original and be enclosed in quotation marks (“…”).
Ordinarily, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by
the date of publication in parentheses. Put the page number (preceded by “p.”) in parentheses after the
quotation.
Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists “wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L”
(p. 109).
If the signal phrase does not name the author, place the author’s last name, the year, and the page number
in parentheses after the quotation. Use commas between items in the parentheses:
Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists “wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L”
(p. 109).
If the quote is longer than 40 words, you do not need quotation marks. Instead, it must be presented as an
indented block on a new line below the text. Acknowledge the author, year and the page number in
parenthesis after the final full stop.
If the quotation runs across two pages in the original text, use “pp.” and an en-dash (“–”) for a range of
pages (pp. 126-127).
Chen (2006) claims “the optimal time for using coffee beans is between 2 and 4 weeks after roasting” (pp.
21-22).
Note: See the Integrating Evidence Guide for more information about how to format quotes.
SUMMARY OR A
PARAPHRASE BASIC
FORMAT
Include the author’s last name and the date either in a signal phrase introducing the material or in
parentheses following it.
According to Hart (1996), researchers took Terrace’s conclusions seriously, and funding for language
experiments declined.
Researchers took Terrace’s conclusions seriously, and funding for language experiments soon declined (Hart,
1996).
A WORK WITH TWO
AUTHORS
Name both authors in the signal phrase or parentheses each time you cite the work. In the parentheses, use
“&” between the authors’ names; in the signal phrase, use “and”.
Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) have acknowledged that…
Kanzi’s linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh,
1990).
A WORK WITH
THREE OR MORE
AUTHORS
When identifying work done by three or more authors, for the first and all subsequent citations use the first
author’s name followed by “et al.” and the date. The phrase “et al.” in Latin and means “and others”.
The chimpanzee Nim was raised by researchers who trained him in American Sign Language by moulding
and guiding his hands (Terrace et al., 1979).
Terrace et al. (1979) trained the chimpanzee Nim in American Sign Language by moulding and guiding his
hands.

IN-TEXT CITATIONS
APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 4 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

ORGANISATION AS
AUTHOR
If the author is a government agency or organisation, name the organisation in the signal phrase or in the
parenthetical citation in the same way you would if it were a person.
According to the Language Research Centre (2000), linguistic research with apes has led to new methods
of treating humans with learning disabilities such as autism and dyslexia.
If the organisation has a familiar abbreviation, you may include it in brackets the first time you cite the
source.
The national guideline for alcohol consumption is for no more than two standard drinks per day (National
Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC], 2009).
The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) advises that people under the age of 18
should not drink alcohol (2009).
TWO OR MORE WORKS
IN THE SAME
PARENTHESES
When your parenthetical citation names two or more works, put them in the same order that they appear
in the reference list (i.e. alphabetically), separated by semicolons.
Researchers argued that the apes in the early language experiments were merely responding to cues
(Sebeok & Umiker-Sebeok, 1979; Terrace, 1979).
CHAPTERS WRITTEN BY
DIFFERENT AUTHORS
IN AN EDITED BOOK
Some books are put together by an editor or editors and consist of chapters written by different authors.
In this case, cite the author(s) of the chapter, not of the book. So, if you used a particular chapter which was
written by Facelli which was part of a book edited by Conran and Duckhouse in 2015, the reference would
be Facelli (2015).
SECONDARY SOURCESIf you use a source that was cited in another work (a secondary source), name the original source in your
signal phrase. If the date of the original work is known, include that too. In parenthesis, list the secondary
source (the one you found it in) and its date, preceded by the words “as cited in”. List the secondary source
in your reference list. Secondary sources should be used sparingly, as it is best to find the original work if
at all possible. In the following example, Carey & Stefaniak is the secondary source (i.e. the source that
you have direct access to):
Learner satisfaction increases with goal attainment which in turn increases self-efficacy perceptions (Schunk
1991, as cited in Carey & Stefaniak, 2018).
Schunk (1991, as cited in Carey & Stefaniak, 2018) suggests learner satisfaction increases with goal
attainment which in turn increases self-efficacy perceptions.
PERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
Interviews, letters, e-mail, and other person-to-person communications should be cited as follows:
One of Patterson’s former aides, who worked with the gorilla Michael, believes that he was capable of
joking and lying in sign language (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2000).
Note: personal communication is not included in the reference list.
4
TRADITIONAL
KNOWLEDGE OR ORAL
TRADITIONS OF
INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
The manner of citing Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples varies depending on
how the information has been accessed. If the information has been recorded (e.g. book, audio, interview
transcript), cite in-text and include a reference list entry according to the appropriate source type.
If the information has not been recorded, a variation of personal communication may be used. As much as
possible, provide: full name, Indigenous nation or group, location, personal communication, and date of
correspondence.
We spoke with Anna Grant (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal
communication, April 2019) about traditional understandings of the world by First Nations Peoples in
Canada. She described . . .
Be sure to maintain the integrity of Indigenous perspectives. Ensure information is accurate and appropriate
to share before citing. Terms related to Indigenous Peoples must be capitalised (e.g. Kaurna, Wurundjeri,
Traditional Custodian).
Note: as this is a form of personal communication, it is not included in the reference list.
QUOTING RESEARCH
PARTICIPANTS
Within the text, state that the quote is from a research participant. Protect the identity of the participants
by referring to them by pseudonyms or nicknames, roles, descriptive phrases, or case numbers. For
formatting, follow the same guidelines as other quotations.
One participant, “Jane”, a forty-year-old nurse from Townsville, noted that she felt “overwhelmed by the number of
new cases this year.”
Note: as participants are part of original research, they are not included in the reference list.

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 5 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

OTHER ELECTRONIC
SOURCES
Where possible, use the author-date style, as you would with any other source. For audio-visual material
the author is usually the director, producer or host. For further help ascertaining who the author of an
electronic work or website is, please refer to the Seventh Edition Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association or APA website.
Note: The Seventh Edition Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in the
Flinders University Library.

COMMON IN TEXT REFERENCING ISSUES

UNKNOWN AUTHOR/
ANONYMOUS
If the author is unknown, use the title of the work in the place of the author’s name. Use italics for titles
which are italicised in the reference list. Use double quotation marks around the title if no italics are
required in the reference list.
Chimpanzees in separate areas of Africa differ in a range of behaviours. An international team of
researchers has concluded that many of the differing behaviours are cultural, not just responses to varying
environmental factors (“Chimps”, 1999).
In the rare case when “Anonymous” is specified as the author, treat it as if it were a real name:
(Anonymous, 2001). In the list of references, also use the name Anonymous as author.
UNKNOWN DATEWhen the date is unknown, APA recommends using the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”).
Attempts to return sign-language-using apes to the wild have had mixed results (Smith, n.d.).
4
NO PAGE
NUMBERS
APA ordinarily requires page numbers for direct quotations, and it recommends them for long summaries
or paraphrases. When an electronic source lacks stable numbered pages, your citation should include (if
possible) information that will help readers locate the particular passage being cited. When a document
has numbered paragraphs, use the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation “para.” (or “paras.”
– plural):
(Hall, 2001, para. 5).
If neither a page nor a paragraph number is given and the document contains headings, cite the
appropriate heading and indicate which paragraph under that heading you are referring to:
According to Kirby (1999), some critics have accused activists in the Great Ape Project of “exaggerating
the supposed similarities of the apes [to humans] to stop their use in experiments” (Shared Path section,
para. 6).
When quoting from an audio-visual work (YouTube/TED Talk etc), use a time stamp to mark the beginning
of the quotation instead of page numbers.
In his TED Talk on the things which contribute to a good life, Waldinger claims that “living in the midst of
warm relationships is protective” for our health (Waldinger, 2015, 4:54)
TWO OR MORE WORKS
BY THE SAME AUTHOR
IN THE SAME YEAR
When your list of references includes more than one work by the same author in the same year, use
lowercase letters (“a”, “b” and so on) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use those
same letters with the year in the citation:
Research by Kennedy (2000b) has yielded new findings concerning…
LEGISLATIONIn-text citations of legislation do not include an author. Instead, the short title of the legislation appears in
italics followed by the jurisdiction in brackets. If necessary, refer to the section of the legislation. Note, the
year is included in the title. For example:
According to s. 1.14 of the Sex Discrimination Act 1984. (Cth), it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate
against a person based on their sex or sexual orientation.
FORMAT FOR SOURCE
TYPE IS NOT LISTED IN
APA
If the work you want to cite and include in your reference list does not match any specific example in the
APA style manual, choose an example of the type of work which is most similar and adapt the format
accordingly.

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 6 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION
Note: These items have been updated in APA 7th Edition and differ from APA 6th Edition.
In APA style, the alphabetical list of works cited, which appears at the end of the paper, is titled “References”.
Every work cited in the text must be listed. Each entry usually contains four main elements: author(s), year of
publication, title, and source/publishing data, in this order. The publishing data for a book or monograph
consists of the name of the publishing company; for a journal article it consists of the volume and issue
numbers, page numbers, and Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) or Uniform Resource Locators (URL) if
applicable.
Observe all details: capitalisation, punctuation, use of italics, and so on. Keep the list in alphabetical order
by authors’ last names; if a work has no author, list it alphabetically it by its title. The first element of each
entry is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it in
the alphabetised list. The date of publication appears immediately after the first element of the entry.
BOOKS

BASIC FORMAT FOR
A BOOK
Author, A. (Year). Title of book: Subtitle (2nd ed.). Publisher Name.
Highmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. Routledge.
EDITED BOOKDuncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage
Foundation.
AUTHORED BOOK
WITH EDITOR CREDITED
ON COVER
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). Anchor.
BOOK REPUBLISHED
IN TRANSLATION
Singer, I. B. (1998). Shadows on the Hudson (J. Sherman, Trans.). Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
(Original work published 1957)
Note: cite translated works in the language in which it was translated. To cite a work that is in
another language, provide the author, date, title, and source of the work in the original language
as well as a translation of the title in square brackets after the title and before the period.
EDITION OTHER THAN
THE FIRST
Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of
Chicago Press.
ARTICLE OR CHAPTER
IN AN EDITED BOOK
Meskell, L. (2001). Archaeologies of identity. In I. Hodder (Ed.), Archaeological theory today (pp.
187-213). Polity Press.
SINGLE VOLUME OF
MULTIVOLUME WORK
Ford, B. (1989). The Cambridge guide to the arts in Britain: Vol 4 The seventeenth century.
Cambridge University Press.
SHAKESPEAREShakespeare, W. (1995). Much ado about nothing (B. A. Mowat & P. Werstine, Eds.). Washington
Square Press. (Original work published 1623)

JOURNALS AND PERIOICALS

BASIC FORMAT FOR A
JOURNAL ARTICLE
Author, A. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle. Title of the Journal, volume number(issue number), start
page-end page.
ONLINE JOURNAL
ARTICLE
(DOI available)
Lewandowsky, S., Cook, J., Fay, N., & Gignac, G. E. (2019). Science by social media: Attitudes
towards climate change are mediated by perceived social consensus. Memory & Cognition, 47(8),
1445-1456. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00948-y

THE REFERENCE LIST
APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 7 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

JOURNAL ARTICLE
FROM A RESEARCH
DATABASE (no DOI)
OR IN PRINT
Gleason, B., & Von Gillern, S. (2018). Digital citizenship with social media: Participatory practices
of teaching and learning in secondary education. Journal of Educational Technology & Society,
21(1), 200-212.
ONLINE JOURNAL
ARTICLE LOCATED ON A
WEBSITE (no DOI)
Newnham, E. A., Titov, N., & McEvoy, P. (2020). Preparing mental health systems for climate crisis.
The Lancet Planetary Health, 4(3), e89-e90.
https://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/Research/Publications
MAGAZINE ARTICLE
(online)
DeAngelis, T. (2020, November 1). Music’s power over our brains. American Psychological
Association, 51(8), 24. https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/11/news-music-power
MAGAZINE ARTICLE
(print)
Raloff, J. (2001, May 12). Lead therapy won’t help most kids. Science News, 159, 289-292.
Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
(online)
Harris, R. (2020, November 12). Conflict threatens global health security as children miss out on life
saving vaccines. https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/conflict-threatens-global-health
security-as-children-miss-out-on-life-saving-vaccines-20201111-p56dn7.html
Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE
(print)
Haney, D. Q. (1998, February 20). Finding eats at mystery of appetite. The Oregonian, pp. A1,
A17.
Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation
REVIEWFrazer-Carroll, M. (2019, May 8). Joy as well as struggle [Review of the book Girl, Woman, Other
by B. Evaristo] The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/books/2019/may/08/girl-woman
other-by-bernardine-evaristo-review
Note: month and day are not included in the in-text citation.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

WEBPAGE WITH AN
INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR
Cherry, K. (2020, July 19). Tips for overcoming procrastination. Verywell Mind.
https://www.verywellmind.com/tips-for-overcoming-procrastination-2795714
Note: include the most specific publication date possible. This means citing the date a work was last
updated if this information is available. Retrieval date is only necessary if the content is likely to be
updated.
WEBPAGE WITH AN
ORGANISATION OR
GROUP AS AUTHOR
World Health Organisation. (2020, May 20). Asthma. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact
sheets/detail/asthma
Note: include the most specific publication date possible. This means citing the date a work was last
updated if this information is available. Retrieval date is only necessary if the content is likely to be
updated.
WEB DOCUMENTS
(e.g. PDFs)
World Health Organisation. (2007). Global surveillance, prevention and control of chronic
respiratory diseases: A comprehensive approach.
https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43776/9789241563468_eng.pdf;jsessionid
=6F512A96178B4E6F71CC6486715BC719?sequence=1
ONLINE POSTING
(e.g. blog, forum,
discussion post)
Furber, G. (2020, October 6) What is an exam wrapper and how might it improve your
performance? Student Health and Wellbeing. https://blogs.flinders.edu.au/student-health-and-well
being/
Sondhaus, L. [Lawrence_Sondhaus]. (2020, November 13). Ask Me Anything – Lawrence Sondhaus
– Author of World War One: The Global Revolution [Online forum post].
https://www.reddit.com/r/history/comments/jsze0x/ask_me_anything_lawrence_sondhaus_autho
r_of_world/
Note: if the author’s real name and screenname are available, include the real name followed by
the screenname in square brackets. If the real name is unknown, use the screenname without
brackets.

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 8 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

COMPUTER PROGRAM
(specialised)
Kaufmann, W. J., III, & Comins, N. F. (1998). Discovering the universe (Version 4.1) [Computer
software]. New York: Freeman.
Note: Standard programs such as Word, SPSS, Photoshop, do not require a reference.
ONLINE VIDEO (E.G.
YOUTUBE, VIMEO)
TED (2016, April 7). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator. [Video].
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arj7oStGLkU
Urban, T. (2016, February). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator. [Video]. TED Conferences.
https://www.ted.com/talks/tim_urban_inside_the_mind_of_a_master_procrastinator
Note: the person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even
if they did not create the work. For example, a TED talk viewed on YouTube lists TED as the author.
The same TED talk published on the TED site lists the speaker as the author.
IMAGE FROM A WEBSITENickolls, T. (1981) Machine time Madonna [Painting]. Art Gallery of South Australia.
https://www.agsa.sa.gov.au/collection-publications/collection/works/machine-time
madonna/23950/
Note: If the title of the work is unknown, provide a brief description in square brackets.
Donovan, R. (n.d.) [Photograph of a wolf at a riverbed] National Geographic.
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2020/10/gray-wolves-taken-off-endangered
species-list-in-controversial-move/#/mm8341_150919_201943.jpg
Note: if the name of the work in unknown, provide a brief description in square brackets.
PODCAST EPISODEMars, R. (Host). (2020, April 22). Masking for a friend [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% Invisible.

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

DISSERTATION OR
THESIS FROM A
DATABASE
Hollander, M. M. (2017). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from
Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin
Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
DISSERTATION OR
THESIS PUBLISHED
ONLINE
(not in a database)
Hutcheson, V.H. (2012). Dealing with dual differences: Social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian,
gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer adolescents [Master’s thesis, The College of William & Mary].
William & Mary Digital Archive.
https://digitalarchive.wm.edu/bitsrtream/handle/10288/16594/HutchesonVirginia2012.pdf
GOVERNMENT
DOCUMENT
Australian Government Productivity Commission & New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012).
Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations.
https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/ausstralia-new-zealand/report/trans-tasman.pdf
REPORT FROM A
PRIVATE
ORGANISATION
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating
disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, DC
CONFERENCE PAPER
(published in proceedings)
Bowker, N., & Tuffin, K. (2002). Users with disabilities’ social and economic development through
online access. In M. Boumedine (Ed.), Proceedings of the IASTED International Conference on
Information and Knowledge Sharing (pp. 122–127). ACTA Press
CONFERENCE PAPER
(unpublished)
Melanti, B. G. (1982, August 16-21). Programmers’ attitudes toward computer crime: The case in Hong
Kong [Paper presentation]. 10th World Congress of Computer Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal.
FILMSoderbergh, S. (Director). (2000). Traffic [Film]. Gramercy Pictures.
TELEVISION EPISODEDay, L (Reporter), & Selvaratnam, N. (Producer). (2020, September 30). The class of 2020 (Season
60, Episode 45) [Television series episode]. In S. Neighbour (Executive producer) Four Corners.
Sydney, NSW: Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Note: include the writer(s), reporter(s), director(s), and/or producer(s) as the author

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 9 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

TELEVISION SERIESDaniels, G., Schur, M., Klein, H., Miner, D., Sackett, M., Holland, D. & Goor, D. (Executive
Producers). (2009–2015). Parks and Recreation [Television series]. Deedle-Dee Productions;
Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment Universal Television.
COURSE BOOKSchool of Humanities, Flinders University (2003). Professional English course book, semester 2.
[ENGL 1001]. Flinders University
CODE OF
ETHICS/CONDUCT
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018). Code of conduct for nurses.
http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-Guidelines-Statements/Professional
standards.aspx
MIMSNoralin (2020). In MIMS Online.
https://www.mimsonline.com.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKey
word=&PreviousPage=&SearchType=&ID=133680001_2
COCHRANE SYSTEMATIC
REVIEW
Hefler, M., Liberato, S. C., & Thomas, D. P. (2017), Incentives for preventing smoking in children
and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008645.pub3
LEGISLATIONSex Discrimination Act 1985 (Cth) s. 1.14 (Austl.).
Note: If you are referencing an Australian legislation, you may want to use the AGLC 4th, which
can be obtained from
https://law.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/3181325/AGLC4-with-Bookmarks-
1.pdf. Please check with your lecturer to find out if this is the preferred method when referencing
Australian legislation.

EXAMPLES OF FORMAT FOR DIFFERENT TYPES AND NUMBERS OF AUTHORS
IN THE REFERENCE LIST
The format of the “author” part of the reference is dependent on a variety of factors. The examples below
help identify these differences. Note that the full reference is not given here for the sake of brevity – only
the author and date.

SINGLE AUTHORHighmore, B. (2001). Everyday life and cultural theory. Routledge.
MULTIPLE AUTHORSList up to and including 20 authors by last names followed by initials. Use an ampersand (&)
instead of “and”.
Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of
Chicago Press
If there are more than 21 authors, list the first nineteen, insert three ellipsis points (…) between the
19th and final author.
McDuff, C., Smith, J., Kensington, K., Jones, S., Coughlan, S., Bortolin, L., Witte, M., Scott, A.,
Newport, A., Jensen, K., Wutzler, J., van Staden, I., McLean, J., Bergsma, G., Dowman, B., Petrie,
K., Higgens, D., McCloud, R., Jessop, L., …Duncan, P. (2017). An introduction to quantitative analysis
in finance. Houghton
ORGANISATION AS
AUTHOR
When the author is an organisation, begin with the name of the organisation.
American Psychiatric Association (2000).
TWO OR MORE WORKS
BY THE SAME AUTHOR
Use the author’s last name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest first.
Schlechty, P. C. (1997). Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.
Schlechty, P. C. (2001). Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.

APA REFERENCING (7th Edition) V 1.1 Page 10 of10
APA REFERENCING
7th EDITION

TWO OR MORE WORKS
BY THE SAME AUTHOR
IN THE SAME YEAR
List the works alphabetically by title. In the parentheses, following the year, add “a”, “b” and so
on. Use these same letters when giving the year in the in-text citation. “a” is the one first cited.
Kennedy, C. (2000a). Group dynamics. Title. Where resource is found – depending on reference type.
Kennedy, C. (2000b). Share-taking in small groups. Title. Where resource is found – depending on
reference type.
JOURNAL ARTICLES
FROM ONLINE
DATABASES
In general, it is no longer necessary to include database information, because this can change over
time, and database aggregators further confuse the issue. However, some archival documents can
only be found in certain electronic databases, such as ERIC or JSTOR. If the document is difficult to
locate through its primary publisher, give the URL for the home page of the database.
ONLINE SOURCES AND
THE USE OF DOIS
If you use a source you have found online, you must include information that will enable the reader
to locate the same source. Until recently, this was done by stating the URL. Recently, DOIs (Digital
Object Identifiers) have been introduced. DOIs are attached to each document and stay with it,
even if the URL of the document changes. All DOIs start with the number 10, followed by a dot, a
four- digit number, a slash, and then an alphanumeric string. Note that a DOI will start with
“https:/doi.org/”. Further, a full stop is not used after the DOI.
Example: https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001676305
If you have a DOI and you want to find the document, you can either go to
http://www.crossref.org/ and enter it in the search box, or add the entire DOI string after
http://dx.doi.org/. If a document has a DOI, you should use this in your reference list (see
examples, below). If a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is needed.
If the document does not have a DOI, you should state the complete URL of the home page of the
journal or the publisher of the book or report. Make certain that the link works.
Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time (such as with wiki
pages).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *