process of interviewing and evaluating candidates

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Human Resource Management
Session 4
LO1: The nature and scope of HRM

What is Selection ?
The process of interviewing and evaluating candidates
for a specific job and selecting an individual for
employment based on certain criteria. Employee
selection can range from a very simple process to a
very complicated process depending on the firm hiring
and the position. Certain employment laws such as anti
discrimination laws must be obeyed during employee

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The Recruitment Processes
Centres round all activities directed towards
both locating potential employees and
attracting applications from suitable
The main aims are to ensure:
The process is fair & that it is seen to be
A suitable pool of candidates / applicants
for any vacancies
It’s activities reflect a positive
Organisational image & that they
contribute to the Organisations goals
The process is both efficient and costeffective
Selection is a Two-way Process
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Selection starts when the candidates applications
have all been received, usually by a specified cut off
date. The first stage is to pre-select potentially
suitable candidates from total applications through
the process of short listing, then final selection will
be undertaken by the following methods:
Application forms
Group assessment.

Selection Methods
Application Forms
A form that records the applicant’s desired
position, serves as a prescreening device to
determine an applicant’s qualifications, and
provides preliminary comparisons with the
credentials of other candidates.

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Selection Methods
Employment Testing Measure
Any instrument, device, or information used
to make an employment decision is
considered a test by the
EEOC’s Uniform
Guidelines on Employee Selection


Selection Methods
Relatively formal, in-depth conversations
conducted for the purpose of assessing a
candidate’s knowledge, skills, and abilities,
as well as providing information to the
candidate about the organization and
potential jobs.

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Selection Methods
Importance of Reliability and Validity
Regardless of the selection method used,
the organization must be able to
demonstrate that its selection methods are
reliable and valid and do not discriminate
against employee classes protected by EEO

The Application Form
To sift out unsuitables
To select for interview
It standardises applications
Not What You Want !
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The Application Form
Consider :
Does it ask the right questions ?
Is there space to expand ?
Can it be compared with the job
and person specification ?
What’s the role of the curriculum vitae ?
Handwritten or typed ?
How To Shortlist [1]
Use the Person Specification [PS] –
important to the selection process
Selectors should note where applicants
meet the requirements of PS & where
lack required skills & knowledge.
Consider scoring applications with + or
or numerical grades if the criteria
selected require weighting.
E.g. taking the person specification. A
?” indicates that this particular aspect
cannot be assessed at present.

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How To Shortlist [2]
A preliminary evaluation of most of
the applicant’s skills can be made
at this stage but
cannot tell what
his / her personal qualities are.
Personal qualities will be assessed
later in the selection process
How To Shortlist [3]
At least 2 people should initially
undertake the short-listing
independently of each other.
They should:
Discuss discrepancies in their judgements
Have a fair amount of agreement re
suitable candidates
Compare their evaluations of the

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How To Shortlist [4]
The result of their actions should:
Produce a ranked short-list of
applicants / candidates when using
a + or – system
The required number of candidates.
Increase objectivity and reduce the
effects of individual biases

Knowledge + / – / ? + / – / ?
Skills + / – / ? + / – / ?
+ / – / ? + / – / ?

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The Interview
1. Find the best
2. Exchange
3. Perception
by applicant
of fair
3 Aims
What Are The Types Of Interview ?
1. One-to-one
2. Panel
3. Selection board
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Interview Shortcomings
An artificial situation
Can be poor at predicting future
Tends to reinforce first impressions
Source of “Judgement Errors”
“Judgment Errors”
Halo effect
Contagious bias
Incorrect assessment
Logical error
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5 Keys To Successful Interviewing
1. Prepare
2. Ask effective questions
3. Listen [ 70% of the time ]
4. Good environment
5. Give feedback
Interview Questions Often Asked
What are you currently doing ?
Why do you want to work for this company ?
Why do you want this job ?
What skills and experiences do you have that fit our needs ?
How would you tackle this job?
Tell me about yourself ?
Why should you be the person who gets this job ?
What question would you like to ask us?
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Skills Required For Interviewing
Ability to:
Obtain information
Give information
Interpret information
Prepare – essential
Factors Influencing The Real Cost Of Selection Interviewing
Number of vacancies at that salary
How often the job is recruited for
Employer’s costs for each new recruit
The advertisement or agency fees
Cost per hour of the employees involved in the recruitment
Man hours the recruitment process takes
New staff induction costs
Time taken for new employee to become proficient in his /
her job

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Planning and preparing thoroughly
Clear interpretation of information
Elicit information from:
Candidate that is meaningful, relevant and
Organisation re determining what should be
looking for in a candidate.
Awareness – of candidates behaviour
Ensure meet legal obligations as interviewer re being both fair
and non-discriminatory.
To Increase Effectiveness of Interview
It should be:
Well structured
Well planned
Professionally conducted
Conducted in an effective and efficient manner
Time to allow the collection of sufficient information
to make well-balanced & reasoned assessments
Carried out correctly – reduces selection errors &

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Concentrating too long on a particular area
Inadequate Irrelevant Inconsistent
Uninformative Discriminatory
Inconsistent Inadequate
Subjective judgements
Not fully informed re the job and unable to answer the candidate’s
[based on Rogers 1998 ]

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Psychological or psychometric
It measure or assess intelligence or personality.
They use systematic and standardized
procedures to measure differences in
individual characteristics thus enabling
selectors to gain a greater understanding of
candidates to help in predicting the extent to
which they will be successful in a job.
Psychological tests are measuring
instruments, which is why they are often
referred to as psychometric tests.
‘Psychometric’ literally means
Psychological or psychometric
Intelligence tests
Intelligence tests measure a range of mental abilities that enable a
person to succeed at a variety of intellectual tasks using the faculties
of abstract thinking and reasoning.
Ability tests
Ability tests establish what people are capable of knowing or doing.
Personality tests
Personality tests attempt to assess the personality of candidates in
order to make predictions about their likely behaviour in a role.
Aptitude tests
Aptitude tests are occupational or job-related tests that assess the
extent to which people can do the work.

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A good test provides valid data that enable reliable
predictions of behaviour or performance to be made and
therefore assists in making objective and reasoned decisions
when selecting people for jobs.
A good test will be based on research that has produced
standardized criteria derived by using the same measure to
test a number of representative people to produce a set of
‘norms’ for comparison purposes. The test should be capable
of being objectively scored by reference to the normal or
average performance of the group.
Reliability and Validity
1.It is reliable in the sense that it always measures the same
thing. A test aimed at measuring a particular characteristic,
such as intelligence, should measure the same characteristic
when applied to different people at the same or a different
time or to the same person at different times.
2.It is valid in the sense that it measures the characteristic the
test is intended to measure. Thus, an intelligence test should
measure intelligence (however defined) and not simply verbal
facility. A test meant to predict success in a job or in passing
examinations should produce reasonably convincing
(statistically significant) predictions.

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Selection Summary
Identify the post / vacancy:
Produce a job description [JD] & person specification [PS].
Identify the candidate /applicant required:
Utilise the:
Application form
Test results
Planned interview
Correlate all the information and match
the abilities & inclinations against the
job requirements