Mega-Supermarket optimal energy distribution design

Leeds Metropolitan
University
School of Built
Environment and Engineering

BSc (hons) Building Services
Engineering

Module Title: Dissertation

Assignment Name: Dissertation

Dissertation Title: Mega-Supermarket
optimal energy distribution design
Student Name: Mak Tsz Ho
Student No.: 77146690

Nowadays, the most of people will go
supermarket to purchase their Daily necessities and food. Supermarket is quite
convenient for modern people. There have about two thousands supermarket in
Hong Kong. In the supermarket, we can find many different Areas, for example,
frozen food area, wine area, cold drink area, fruit area, delicatessen area and
Drug area. Different Areas have different requirement for air conditioning.
Also, in the supermarket have many people flow. We need to design a comfort
environment to those people in the supermarket. In the supermarket, we also
need to design an enough lighting environment for those consumers. Sufficient
lighting can give the consumers a good image. Base on above several points, we can estimate
the energy consumption for HVAC and lighting must be quite large in the
supermarkets.
The
modern mega supermarket is a high-volume sales outlet with maximum inventory
turnover. A new category of supermarkets incorporates a supermarket section and
a general dry goods section in one shop. Almost half of supermarket is of
perishable foods including fresh meats requiring refrigeration. Dairy products,
frozen foods, perishable produce, frozen desserts and ice cream, all specialty
items such as bakery and prepared meals and deli products. These foods are
displayed in flexible storage, handling, and display apparatus. Many supermarkets
incorporate food service operations that prepare the food. Refrigerant piping
connects these to condensers and compressors. These equipments are normally
located outside of the supermarket area, either on the roof Food products or in
machine rooms must be kept at suitable temperatures during storage,
transportation, processing, and during display. The food store’s back room is
both a warehouses and a processing plants distribution point that includes
refrigerated rooms. Refrigeration-related areas must be considering during
construction because of the interaction between the mega supermarket’s refrigeration
equipment and itsenvironment.
In this dissertation, we will go through
the different kind of energy consumption and find the way how to decrease the
energy consumptions and optimal energy distribution design in Mega-supermarket.

Because supermarkets operate on the narrow
profit margin, energy costs play a crucial role in the supermarket economics
and competitiveness. In many cases the annual energy costs for a supermarket
equals or exceeds the sales profit. A supermarket’s annual energy costs depend
heavily on the refrigeration systems’ energy use. The energy systems’
operations are sensitive to the impact of various food and energy codes.
The final target of optimal energy
distribution design is energy savings. Energy Saving means utilizing the
minimum amount of energy for heating, cooling, equipment and lighting that is
required to maintain comfort conditions in a building. Improvements have been
made in insulation, plant, lighting and controls and these are significant
features that help towards achieving an energy efficient building. At this
stage it is important to know what is meant by “Energy saving”.
In recent years, the use of energy in
buildings has increased due to the growing demand in energy used for heating
and cooling in buildings. Buildings operated could not without energy.
Improvements have been made in insulation, plant, lighting and controls and
these are significant features that help towards achieving an energy efficient
building. At this stage it is important to know what is meant by “Energy saving”.
The amount of energy consumed varies
depending on the design of the fabric of the building and its systems and how
they are operated. The heating and
cooling systems consume the most energy in a building, however controls such as
programmable thermostats and building energy management systems can
significantly reduce the energy use of these systems. Some buildings also use
zone heating and cooling systems, which can reduce heating and cooling in the
unused areas of a building. In commercial buildings, integrated space and water
heating systems can provide the best approach to energy-efficient heating.
In this
dissertation, we would go to some mega supermarkets in Hong Kong to survey
their energy system and their characteristic of optimal energy distribution
design. The surveyed mega supermarket as show as below:
1:
Jasons Food and living — ( B1, Hysan Place, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong)
2: Taste
Supermarket – (Festival Walk, Yau Yat Chuen, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong)

1. Jasons Food & Living
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In this
mega supermarket, they have cool drink counter and cold food counter in the
nearest place.
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Also, they have a place for wine and
alcohol.
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The refrigerator is place near the wine.
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In the corridor, they have a hot food
counter.
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The dry goods is place together.
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In Jasons food and living, we can see that
they have plan to their goods, foods and drinks. They separated their goods by
two principles:
1. Hot goods and colds goods are separated
into two zone.
For
hot goods and foods, the have locate a area for those things. For example, have
a corridor to sell their hot foods. Also, they have cool drink counter and cold
food counter in the nearest place. This arrangement can save energy because hot
goods and cold goods have different requirement to keep their product freshest,
same place use same criteria can keep the use of energy stable, so that energy
can save.
2. The humidity is other principle for this
supermarket.
For those goods which need to keep low
humidity are place together, such as dry goods. Also, some goods like wine need
to keep a constant humidity which is place together. This principle keeps use
less energy to control humidity anywhere in mega-supermarket.

2: Taste Supermarket
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The frozen
goods are place together. We can see all the refrigerator is place together..0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image014.jpg”>
The wine
place in a corner to place which is separate with others goods.
.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image015.jpg”>
The hot
foods is place in the heater and is at the corner of the supermarket.
.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image017.jpg”>

The dry
goods is place together.
.0/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image019.jpg”>
In Taste supermarket, we can see that they
have plan to their goods, foods and drinks. They separated their goods by two principles:
1. Hot goods and colds goods are separated
into two zone.
For
hot goods and foods, the have locate an area for those things. For example,
have a corridor to sell their hot foods. Also, they have cool drink counter and
cold food counter in the nearest place. This arrangement can save energy
because hot goods and cold goods have different requirement to keep their
product freshest, same place use same criteria can keep the use of energy
stable, so that energy can save.
2. The humidity is other principle for this
supermarket.
For those goods which need to keep low
humidity are place together, such as dry goods. Also, some goods like wine need
to keep a constant humidity which is place together. This principle keeps use
less energy to control humidity anywhere in mega-supermarket.

Literature Review:
1. Analysis of energy savings in a
supermarket refrigeration/HVAC system
Ammar
Bahman, Luis Rosario and Muhammad M. Rahman
Source: Internet
The paper is about refrigeration/HVAC system energy
consumption in a typical food retail store to show the effects of indoor area
conditions. Refrigerated display case is normally rated at a store environment
of 23°C (74°F) and a relative humidity of 54%. If the store can be maintain at
lower relative humidity, the quantities of refrigeration energy, defrost
energy, and anti-sweat heater energy could be saved. Calculations have done for
a typical day in a typical store for each month of the year using the climate
data for Tampa, Florida. This result show relative humidity in a 24h variation
in the store. Using these hourly values of relative humidity for a typical
24hday, relative humidity of the store distribution for a full year was
calculated. The relative humidity of annual average supermarket was found to be
51.1%. It is shown that for a 5% reduction of relative humidity in store, 9.35%
reduction of the display case refrigeration load, and that results in total
store energy load reduction of 4.94%. The results are compared to available
experimental data and find to have a good agreement.
In this paper, we can see that control a constant low humidity can save
energy and the total store energy load can be reduce. This paper’s example
shows that high humidity is need to use more energy to keep the indoor space
conditions. In this paper, we can learn that humidity is important to keep the
temperature in an indoor area. If the mega-supermarket keep the humidity lower,
the energy load will be reduce. This idea is important for this dissertation
because our topic is Mega-Supermarket optimal energy distribution design. This
paper can inspire us to use low humidity to save energy in mega-supermarket.

2. Analysis on
energy saving potential of integrated supermarket HVAC and refrigeration
systems using multiple subcoolers
Liang Yanga, Chun-Lu Zhang
Source: Internet
The paper presents a model based analysis on the energy save potential
of mega-supermarket refrigeration systems and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and
air-conditioning) using multiple sub-coolers among the high-temperature HVAC
system, the medium-temperature refrigeration system, and the low-temperature refrigeration system. The principles of energy reduction are
to have the higher coefficients of performance (COP) system produce more
cooling capacity to reduce the power consumption of the lower COP system or increase
the cooling capacity. The sub-cooler could be placed between the
high-temperature and low-temperature systems, between the medium temperature
and low temperature systems, and between the high temperature and medium temperature
systems. All integration conditions of adding one, two and three sub-coolers
have been searched. The energy saving potential changes with the load ratio
between low-, medium- and high-temperature systems, COP of three systems, and
the ‘‘on-off’’ duty time of HVAC system. The optimal sequence of adding sub-coolers
is also proposed.
This paper say that using multiple sub-coolers can be reduce energy and
have the higher coefficient of performance system generate more cooling
capacity to increase the cooling capacity or reduce the power consumption of
the lower COP system. We can use the multiple sub-coolers to respectively
different temperature systems (high , middle & low temperature). This paper
is useful for our topic, we can use this method to achieve energy saving in
mega supermarket.

3. Air Flow Distribution in the Sales
Area of a Supermarket
Xiumu Fang Chuanliang Song
Jianing Zhao Zhaojun Wang
Source: Internet
In amega-supermarket many
different of goods are displayed in amegasupermarket,
which have their own particularities. The consumer flow rates are great and the
types of shelved goods varies significantly, thereby effect the objects that
generate the demands of air temperature, heat, air humidity and velocity in
different zones. In this paper, the
results are presented of a study of a sales area of a supermarket in
Harbin, including air velocity, air temperature and humidity. According to the
assessment index of air flow distribution (EDT, energy coefficient of
utilization, ADPI, coefficient of ununiformity ,temperature
efficiency and so on), the experimental dataare analyzed.
Suggestion for air conditioning system designis presented in this
paper. The rationality of airflow distribution was thencalculated.
In this paper, we can know that
the important ofAir Flow Distribution in a mega supermarket. It help
us to find that the air flow would be effect the energy. If we need to do the optimal
energy distribution in supermarket, air flow is the one of important idea.

4.Supermarket
Refrigeration System with Completely Secondary Loops
Vasile Minea Ph.D., Member ASHRAE
Source: ASHRAE Journal
The
advanced system presented in this paper involves secondary fluid loops on both
refrigerating and condensing sides, and heat recovery with brine-to-air heat
pumps and passive heat exchangers. This integrated concept has a considerable potential
to reduce combined refrigeration and HVAC energy use in supermarkets located in
northern climates compared to multiplex refrigeration systems with more
conventional heat recovery approaches. It also may reduce up to 70% of the
quantity of primary refrigerant required.
The
completely secondary loop supermarket refrigeration concept is distinguished by
its simple configuration. It uses standard refrigeration components, is not
difficult to operate and control, and has less refrigeration valves and
fittings than most of conventional systems. However, this this concept
represents a significant technological change, so trained refrigeration
technicians and operators are needed.

The total quantity of the primary refrigerants
(R-507) was reduced by 62% compared to baseline multiplex refrigeration
systems. By optimizing refrigeration piping diameters and lengths,and reducing the liquid receivers’ capacities,
the primary refrigerant charge can be reduced, compared to multiplex systems up
to 71%. The heat recovery method with brine to air
heat pump on the lower temperature rejection loop provided efficient space
heating because of at the operating conditions in a cold climate winter the
heat pumps’ high coefficients of performance (4.6). The backup electrical coil
of the central HVAC unit has never operated during small quantities of heat
were rejected outdoors during the winter and the winter for makeup outdoor air
preheating. Both medium refrigeration and low refrigeration zones have been operated
with stable parameters, while the thermodynamic cycles of primary refrigerant are
normal according to thermodynamic refrigeration rule. These performance is
attributable to the secondary fluids of thermal inertia, to the correct adjustments
of secondary fluid flow and of primary refrigerant charges and to a rate,
simple and efficient control strategy. The main heat exchangers (, sub-coolers,
desuper- heaters, evaporators and condensers) have been designed correctlyand have been operated according to the state of
the art of heat transfer. Even though the new system includes secondary fluid
circulating pumps and refrigerant to brine evaporators, and thus, is subject to
additional energy consumptions and heat transfer irreversibility, the specific
annual energy consumption of the new mega supermarket (841 kWh/m2/ year) seems
to be in the same level of magnitude and lower compared to Canadian
conventional multiplex refrigeration systems with de-superheating coils and
fossil fuels as backup energy sources. The main component of the medium- and low-temperature
refrigeration zones (secondary fluid pumps , liquid coolers fans, and compressors)
have assumed 31.2% of the supermarket’s total annual energy consumption. Small
leakage of freezing secondary fluid has been caused by the poor quality the
initially selected solenoid and ball valves, and

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