learning, development and training

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Human Resource Management
Session 6
LO2: Key elements of HRM
Session Objectives
By the end of the session you will be able to:
Understand about learning, development and training.
Identify training needs and types of training
Evaluate different trainings
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•Learning is the process by which individuals acquire
the knowledge, skills behaviours/attitudes that they use
to deal with all aspects of life.
a persisting change in human performance or
performance potential . . . (brought) about as a result of the
learner’s interaction with the environment” (Driscoll, 1994,
pp. 8‐9). 2. “the relatively permanent change in a person’s
knowledge or behavior due to experience” (Mayer, 1982, p.
1040). 3. “an enduring change in behavior, or in the
capacity to behave in a given fashion, which results from
practice or other forms of experience” (Shuell, 1986, p

The Manpower Services Commission defined
development as “the growth or realisation of
a person’s ability, through conscious or
unconscious learning” (1981).
Thus, it more concerned with long-term
individual, or organisational, development
than short-term performance, although it
encompasses this. It emphasises continuous
learning and growth. For the organisation, it
provides a focus to plan its own future
through its human resources
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Training has been defined as “a planned process to modify
attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learning
experience to achieve effective performance in an activity or
range of activities”.
Training is essentially concerned with short-term performance
of the job or task in hand. As such, it provides the
preparation to undertake specific requirements by, usually,
the development of particular skills. So, for example, it may
include training to use a new piece of equipment or a new
computer application, or to improve letter writing or report
writing skills. It may also be linked to development plans, for
the individual and the org, in which case it may be applied to
assist with career growth and the building of skills
, which may
or may not be immediately required but will be in the future.
Differentiate Development
and Trtaining
Concerned with longterm
, development than
short-term performance.
It emphasises continuous
learning and growth. For
the organisation, it
provides a focus to plan
its own future through
its human resources
Concerned with short-term
It provides the preparation to
undertake specific requirements.
It may also be linked to
development plans, for the
individual and the org, be applied to
assist with career growth and the
building of skills, which may or may
not be immediately required

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Identifying training needsthe training gap
Organizational analysis: org’s objectives, its
resources, resource allocation and utilization,
growth potential and its environment.
Task analysis: analyse job to identify job
contents, knowledge, skills and aptitude
required. Tasks to be performed, methods
used, employees’ learning methods and
performance standard
Workforce analysis: required quality of
workforce in context of internal and external
Identifying training needsthe training gap (Cont)
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Types of Training
Presentation methods:
Lectures: *standard lecture *team
teaching: two or more trainers present
different topics *guest speakers *panels:
two or more speakers present info & ask
ques *student presentations
Advantages: *least expensive *least time
consuming *large group can be employed
*communicate large amount of
Disadvantages: *tend to lack participants
involvement, feedback & meaningful
connection to the work env *lectures
appeal to few of the trainees senses,
difficult to judge quickly the learners
level of understanding.

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Presentation methods:
Audiovisual techniques
Audiovisual techniques include overheads, slides &
video. It has been used for improving com skills,
interviewing skills & customer service skills &
illustrating how procedures should be followed.
Advantages: *trainers can review, slow down or
speed up which gives flexibility *trainees can be
exposed to equipment problem or events that can
not be demonstrated *trainees are provided with
consistent *trainees cn see & hear their own
Disadvantages: *too much content for trainees to
learn *poor dialogue between the actors *overuse
of humour or music & drama that make it
confusing for trainiees to learn
Hands on Method
On the job training
Case studies
Business games
Role plays
Behaviour modeling
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Hands on Method: on the
job training (OJT)
It refers to new or inexperienced employee learning
thru observing peers or managers performing the job &
trying to imitate their behaviour.
It is useful for trng newly hired employees, upgrading
experienced employees with new technology, cross
training within dept & orienting transferred or new
On the job training (OJT)
Advantages of OJT: *need less investment in time &
money *expert managers are used as instructors *better
Disadvantages of OJT: *managers may not use the same
process to complete the task *trainees may learn bad
habit as well *unskilled instructor may develop unskilled

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Effective OJT: some
Policy statement describing the puropose of OJT &
co’s support for that
Clear specification of who is accountable for
conducting OJT
A thorough review of OJT practices in other similar
Training of managers & peers
Availability of lesson plans, checklists, procedures
manuals, trng manuals, learning contracts,
progress report etc
Evaluation of employees levels of basic skills
before OJT
Principles of OJT
Preparing for instruction: *breakdown the job into
important steps *prepare the necessary equipment,
materials & supplies *decide how much time to devote
to OJT
Actual instruction: *tell trainees the onj of the task &
ask them to watch demo *show how to do without
saying anything *explain the key points or behaviour
*show how to do it again *ask trainees to do the task &
praise for correct reproduction *in case of mistakes ask
them do again until accurate reproduction *praise
trainee for success

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Types of OJT
Self-directed learning: employees take
responsibility for all aspects of learning.
Trainees master predetermined trng
content at their own pace without an
instructor. Trainers may serve as
Apprenticeship: work study trng method
with both on OJT. Advantages are: *earn
while learn*results in full time
employment. Disadvantages are: *no
guarantee that they will get the job *for
vocational people only
Hands on Method
Simulation is a trng method that represent
real life situation.
Case studies: process for case development-
*identify a story *gather info *prepare a story
outline *decide on administrative issues
*prepare case materials
Business games
Role plays experiential
Behaviour modeling: presents trainees with a
model who demonstrates key behaviours to
replicate & provide trainee with the
opportunity to practice key behaviour.

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Group Building Methods
Group building methods are designed to
improve team or group effectiveness. Here
trainees share ideas & experiences, build group
identity, understand the dynamics of
interpersonal relationship & get to know their
own strengths & weaknesses & those of their
co-workers. Group building method often
experiential learning which involves
four stages: *gain conceptual knowledge &
theory *take part in behaviour simulation
*analyse the activity *connect theory & activity
with real life situation
Group building methods
Adventure learning: focus on development of
teamwork/leadership skill thru structured outdoor
activities. It is effective to develop self awareness,
problem solving, conflict mgt & risk taking.
Team training: co-ordinate the performance of
individuals who work together to achieve a common goal.
Three components of team performance: knowledge,
attitude & behaviour.
Structure of team trng: four main
component – tools, methods, strategies (cross trng,
coordination trng & team leader trng), team trng
Action learning: gives team an actual problem, let them
work on solving it & committing to an action plan & then
hold them accountable for carrying out the plan.

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Orientation of New
Orientation: training
• Orientation: training
designed to prepare
employees – to perform
their jobs effectively, –
learn about their
organization, and –
establish work
The objectives of
orientation programs
include making new
employees familiar with
the organization’s rules,
policies, and
Contents of a Typical
Orientation Programme

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Evaluation of Training:
Transfer of Training
Transfer of training: on‐the‐job use of knowledge, skills,
and behaviors learned in training.
Can be measured by asking employees three questions
about specific training tasks: 1. Do you perform the
task? 2. How many times do you perform the task? 3. To
what extent do you perform difficult and challenging
learned tasks?
Evaluation Methods: Training
Information such as facts, techniques, and
procedures that trainees can recall after the
Skills that trainees can demonstrate in tests
or on the job.
Trainee and supervisor satisfaction with the
training program.
Changes in attitude related to the content of
the training.
Improvements in individual, group, or
company performance.