formatted as per Springer recommendation

  1. Length of the final report is up to 10 pages (about 3,500 words) plus references.
  2. The report should be formatted as per Springer recommendation. It should consist of the following parts/sections listed below.
  3. It is important to follow the structure below and have subsections in different sections when necessary.


In addition to cover page including unit code, project title and student information, the report should have the following sections. You need to generate *your own* cover page.

Abstract (10 marks). About 100 words. It must be very succinct, and includes project aims, the significance within the field, and the expected research outcomes in the project. Make sure it is a compelling summary of the report you are submitting, not a prelude to the work you have done. Don’t cite any bibliographic item here. It should be understandable to an non-expert. Some of the words in your abstract should occur in the title.


Hint: make a word cloud of the title and abstract (see: https://worditout.com/word-cloud/create). See if the right words modulo your report get emphasised.

1. Introduction (10 marks) should address roughly the following. 

  1.1 Project Aims

  1.2 Background

  1.3 Research Problems and the Context (e.g., you may consider a specific scenario in the application from which you target several research problems – need not to be too broad)

  1.4 Expected Outcomes (linked to the Aims and Research Problems)

  1.5 Benefits and Significance (linked to the Expected Outcomes)

2. Research Methodology (10 marks)

Introduce the steps you have taken in this project. In each step, there may be more than one task that you have done.

3. Literature Review (30 marks)

A description of different relevant approaches and concepts in the space you have explored. Make the review thematic — not broken down by papers, but by themes, i.e., you need to compare and categorise the related studies, rather than listing them one by one.

4. Results/Outcomes and Analysis/Discussion (30 marks)

  4.1 Introduce and discuss the results/outcomes you have achieved (for a survey project, you can introduce identified gaps in the literature followed with discussions).

  4.2 Suggestions for future solutions

5. Conclusion (10 marks)

  Summarise your work/contributions in this project.

References/Bibliography The references should include at least ten entries that have been read by the student

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