Develop an integrated marketing communication plan


Table of Contents

Unit of Competency 4
Application 4
Performance Criteria 5
Foundation Skills 7
Assessment Requirements 8

  1. Determine marketing communication requirements 10
    1.1 – Confirm marketing communication purpose and objectives with client 11
    Marketing communication purpose and objectives 11
    Activity 1A 13
    1.2 – Obtain comprehensive client and product information 14
    Obtaining client and product information 14
    Activity 1B 16
    1.3 – Review outcomes of previous marketing communication with client 17
    Previous marketing communication 17
    Activity 1C 19
    1.4 – Confirm budget allocation with client 20
    Budget allocation 20
    Activity 1D 21
  2. Develop marketing communication brief 22
    2.1 – Develop brief, ensuring it contains a client profile, purpose statement and objectives reflecting client needs 23
    Developing a brief 23
    Activity 2A 25
    2.2 – State marketing communication objectives in measurable terms and provide specific guidelines on what is to be accomplished by marketing communication 26
    Marketing communication objectives 26
    Activity 2B 27
    2.3 – Define key characteristics, competitive factors and market situation facing product or service 28
    What is to be defined? 28
    Activity 2C 30
    2.4 – Include a summary of information on target audience, and legal and ethical constraints 31
    Summarising information on the target audience 31
    Information on the target audience 31
    Summarising legal and ethical constraints 32
    Activity 2D 35
  3. Design integrated marketing communication strategy 36
    3.1 – Select marketing communication options appropriate for marketing communication brief 37
    Marketing communication options 37
    Activity 3A 38
    3.2 – Critically analyse advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable and media vehicles for product or service 39
    Critical analysis 39
    Activity 3B 41
    3.3 – Determine media characteristics matching brief requirements 42
    Determining media characteristics 42
    Activity 3C 43
    3.4 – Analyse media consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media among target audiences 44
    Analysing media consumption habits 44
    Activity 3D 46
    3.5 – Evaluate media styles against the brand character of product or service being marketed 47
    Evaluating media styles 47
    Activity 3E 49
    3.6 – Compare advantages and disadvantages of selecting multiple media in a media plan 50
    Comparing advantages and disadvantages 50
    Activity 3F 52
    3.7 – Develop and apply criteria for selecting multiple media combinations 53
    Developing and applying criteria 53
    Activity 3G 54
  4. Select and recommend media for marketing strategy 55
    4.1 – Select media vehicles that match requirements of marketing brief for product or service 56
    Selecting media vehicles 56
    Activity 4A 57
    4.2 – Recommend primary and secondary marketing media that meet target audience preferences 58
    Recommending primary and secondary marketing media 58
    Activity 4B 59
    4.3 – Ensure recommended media meet the brief, client’s requirements, and legal and ethical constraints 60
    Recommended media requirements 60
    Activity 4C 61
  5. Develop creative brief 62
    5.1 – Identify creative content for chosen media using consumer language in the brief 63
    Identifying creative content 63
    Activity 5A 64
    5.2 – Identify pitch or appeal for product or service in the brief that meets client requirements 65
    Identifying pitch or appeal 65
    Activity 5B 66
    5.3 – Identify supporting information required for consumer understanding of product or service in the brief 67
    Identifying supporting information 67
    Activity 5C 68
    5.4 – Ensure budget for creative work, consistent with overall marketing budget, is contained in the brief 69
    Budget for creative work 69
    Activity 5D 70
    5.5 – Incorporate deadline for creative work consistent with overall media schedule in the brief 71
    Incorporating deadlines 71
    Activity 5E 72
    Summative Assessments 73
    References 74

    Unit of Competency
    Application

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to identify and evaluate the range of marketing communication options and media, to design an integrated marketing communication plan, and to develop a marketing communication brief and creative brief reflecting client needs and preferences.
It applies to individuals working in a supervisory or management marketing or advertising role, within a marketing or advertising team or media organisation.
No licensing, legislative or certification requirements apply to this unit at the time of publication.

Unit Sector

Business Development – Marketing

Performance Criteria
Element
Elements describe the essential outcomes. Performance Criteria
Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.

  1. Determine marketing communication requirements 1.1 Confirm marketing communication purpose and objectives with client
    1.2 Obtain comprehensive client and product information
    1.3 Review outcomes of previous marketing communication with client
    1.4 Confirm budget allocation with client
  2. Develop marketing communication brief 2.1 Develop brief, ensuring it contains a client profile, purpose statement and objectives reflecting client needs
    2.2 State marketing communication objectives in measurable terms and provide specific guidelines on what is to be accomplished by marketing communication
    2.3 Define key characteristics, competitive factors and market situation facing product or service
    2.4 Include a summary of information on target audience, and legal and ethical constraints
  3. Design integrated marketing communication strategy 3.1 Select marketing communication options appropriate for marketing communication brief
    3.2 Critically analyse advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable and media vehicles for product or service
    3.3 Determine media characteristics matching brief requirements
    3.4 Analyse media consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media among target audiences
    3.5 Evaluate media styles against the brand character of product or service being marketed
    3.6 Compare advantages and disadvantages of selecting multiple media in a media plan
    3.7 Develop and apply criteria for selecting multiple media combinations
  4. Select and recommend media for marketing strategy 4.1 Select media vehicles that match requirements of marketing brief for product or service
    4.2 Recommend primary and secondary marketing media that meet target audience preferences
    4.3 Ensure recommended media meet the brief, client’s requirements, and legal and ethical constraints
  5. Develop creative brief 5.1 Identify creative content for chosen media using consumer language in the brief
    5.2 Identify pitch or appeal for product or service in the brief that meets client requirements
    5.3 Identify supporting information required for consumer understanding of product or service in the brief
    5.4 Ensure budget for creative work, consistent with overall marketing budget, is contained in the brief
    5.5 Incorporate deadline for creative work consistent with overall media schedule in the brief

    Foundation Skills
    This section describes language, literacy, numeracy and employment skills incorporated in the performance criteria that are required for competent performance.

Reading
 Accesses information from a range of sources and identifies, interprets and analyses information relevant to marketing activities.
Writing
 Uses clear, specific and culturally appropriate language to articulate potentially complex ideas, issues and concepts to clients
 Uses appropriate formats and structures information logically to present ideas and recommendations to clients.
Oral communication
 Actively participates in verbal exchanges by listening and questioning to clarify and confirm information
 Uses appropriate language and non-verbal features to clarify, explain and present information on marketing activities.
Numeracy
 Collates and interprets numeric information to analyse trend data, develop targets and prepare budgets for marketing activities.
Navigate the world of work
 Considers legal and ethical implications in relation to own role.
Get the work done
 Plans, organises and implements tasks to achieve outcomes, with an awareness of client requirements, time and budgetary restraints
 Makes decisions by systematically analysing information, identifying and evaluating options against set criteria, and choosing most appropriate option
 Evaluates outcomes of decisions to identify opportunities for improvement
 Develops new and innovative ideas through exploration, analysis and critical thinking.


Assessment Requirements
Performance Evidence

Evidence of the ability to:
 Produce an integrated strategic marketing communication plan for presentation to a client, including:
o purpose statement
o definition of target audience
o analysis of product or service
o legal and ethical constraints
o marketing communication functions and media vehicles chosen, with rationale for each
o creative brief for media options
o schedule for creative work
o budgetary allocation for each media vehicle.
Note: If a specific volume or frequency is not stated, then evidence must be provided at least once.

Knowledge Evidence

To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:
 Outline economic, social and industry trends relevant to choice of appropriate media options
 Analyse industry products or services to recommend appropriate media options
 Summarise key provisions of relevant legislation, codes of practice and national standards affecting marketing operations
 Explain principles of consumer behaviour and influences on buyer behaviour
 Summarise range of marketing communication options for different markets
 Describe and contrast range of media vehicles for marketing communication options.

Assessment Conditions

Assessment must be conducted in a safe environment where evidence gathered demonstrates consistent performance of typical activities experienced in the business development – marketing field of work and include access to:
 Office equipment and resources
 Relevant legislation, regulations, standards and codes
 Case studies and, where possible, real situations
 Interaction with others.
Assessors must satisfy NVR/AQTF assessor requirements.

Links
Companion volumes available from the IBSA website: http://www.ibsa.org.au/companion_volumes – http://companion_volumes.vetnet.education.gov.au/Pages/TrainingPackage.aspx?pid=13
Companion Volume implementation guides are found in VETNet – https://vetnet.education.gov.au/Pages/TrainingDocs.aspx?q=11ef6853-ceed-4ba7-9d87-4da407e23c10

  1. Determine marketing communication requirements
    1.1. Confirm marketing communication purpose and objectives with client
    1.2. Obtain comprehensive client and product information
    1.3. Review outcomes of previous marketing communication with client
    1.4. Confirm budget allocation with client  
    1.1 – Confirm marketing communication purpose and objectives with client

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Communicate with client to establish details of the marketing communication, including:
o purpose
o objective.
Marketingcommunication purpose and objectives
In order to design and develop an integrated marketing communication plan, the first step is to determine marketing communication requirements. In determining these requirements, you need to confirm, with the client, the marketing communication purpose and objectives.
What is the marketing communication purpose? The marketing communication purpose is the purpose of the marketing plan. The purpose is the reason the plan is being created. It reflects the client’s aims, goals and objectives. The client’s objectives(in other words, what the client wants to achieve from the plan) may be a key part of designing the plan. An objective is an aim or goal to be achieved by implementing the plan. The client may have more than one objective.
Objectives are more specific while the purpose of the marketing communication plan may be a broader goal or aim. The list below discusses some common marketing communication purposes. It may be that your client’s purpose is similar to one of the purposes listed or, it could be something completely different. It will be unique to each client and the product or service they are marketing.
Marketing communication purpose may include:
 Communicating a message to a particular audience
 Differentiating features or benefits
 Promoting an image
 Providing information
 Recruiting staff
 Retaining customers
 Stimulating demand for a product or service.
You need to know what the marketing communication purpose is so that you can adapt a plan which will meet this purpose, as well as the client’s objectives. As you develop both the marketing communication brief and the creative brief, you will need to continually refer to the client’s purpose and objectives. These must remain the primary focus.
When determining marketing communication requirements, you will need to develop your communication skills to question, clarify and report when creating the marketing and creative briefs. If you do not ask the right questions or clarify information when necessary, the briefs will not contain the correct information and therefore will not meet the client’s communication requirements, the purpose or the objectives of the marketing communication plan.

Activity 1A

1.2 – Obtain comprehensive client and product information

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Use communication skills to obtain relevant client/product information
 Make decisions regarding which information is necessary.
Obtaining client and product information
Once you have confirmed the client’s marketing communication purpose and objectives, the next stage is to obtain comprehensive information about the client and product. It is necessary to establish this information before you can properly develop a marketing communication plan.
Client and product information may include:
 Company’s business policies and practices
 Company’s promotional ethos
 Competition
 Distribution channels
 Existing customers and target market
 Packaging design
 Past advertising for the product
 Price, if any
 Problems and opportunities facing the product
 Product name and characteristics.
When obtaining information about the client and product, you will need to use your communication skills to question, clarify and report. It is vital that the information you obtain is correct. As a preliminary stage in developing the marketing plan, later developments, such as the development of the marketing communication or creative brief, may be reliant on the information you obtain at this stage.
You may obtain information by:
 Conducting a client interview
 Conducting an analysis of the product or service
 Considering any other information or knowledge relating to the product or service, for example, the manufacturing process or the market competition
 Speaking to customers and assessing their feedback
 Considering data or other information about customers and competitors.
Your analysis of the product or service should consider current methods being used to market the product or service as well as those methods used by competitors.
When obtaininginformation, you should keep a clear record as it will be used as part of the brief.

Activity 1B

1.3 – Review outcomes of previous marketing communication with client

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Gather information regarding outcomes of previous marking communications with the client
 Review the information about outcomes in detail and make suggestions based on it.
Previous marketing communication
An outcome is the way something has turned out; in this case it is how any previous marketing communication has turned out.
When establishing outcomes, you may wish to consider the following:
 Did the previous marketing communication meet its purpose and objectives?
 Where did it fail? Why did it fail?
 What were its strengths?
 What were its weaknesses?
 Are there any elements the client does not wish to repeat in this plan?
 Are there any elements the client feels were missing from the previous plan?
 Are there any elements the client wishes to retain?
Outcomes may include the following:
 The marketing communication met its purpose and objectives.
 The marketing communication did not meet its purpose or objectives.
 The client has a new purpose and/or objectives.
You can review the outcomes of previous marketing communication by analysing the previous marketing communication plan. There are many factors that you will need to consider. It may be useful to use the performance criteria for this unit when conducting your review. For example, you might consider the purpose, the client’s objectives, the budget, information about the target audience, any legal or ethical constraints that applied and so on. However, you should be careful in conducting your review. Do not allow previous marketing plans to influence this plan, even where they were successful. Keep in mind the reason why the client requires a new plan.
Where the outcomes did not meet the client’s purpose or objective, you should consider whether the new marketing communication plan should differ. Is there a reason why it didn’t meet these? Can this reason be tackled in the new plan? You may also wish to consider the same, where the plan did succeed? Can these aspects be built on in the new plan? The client will also have preferences and opinions based on the previous plan; for example, they may feel a different approach is relevant due to other changes.This may be the case if the client’s objectives or aims have changed since the previous marketing.
When reviewing outcomes of previous marketing communication, you will need to focus on developing your skills to evaluate and learn from previous marketing communication. These skills will contribute to the development of your marketing communication plan.

Activity 1C

1.4 – Confirm budget allocation with client

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Communicate with the client to confirm the budget.
Budget allocation
You must confirm the budget to design and develop an integrated marketing communication plan with the client. The client should be informed of the budget and provided with a breakdown of it. The budget should always be agreed, preferably in writing, before you proceed.
Budget allocation should follow a clear template. It should cover all aspects of the service. When allocating a budget, keep in mind that the process of first designing and then developing an integrated marketing communication plan is lengthy. It should be broken down into different sections to make it easy for the client to understand the full service that you are providing (e.g. determining requirements, developing the marketing communication brief, designing a strategy).
When allocating budget, you need to consider a number of factors.Questions you may need to clarify couldinclude:
 Is the budget flexible or fixed?
 Does it make allowance for any anomalies that may occur? (E.g. a situation or event that has not been foreseen)
 Is the budget allocated in detail? If you miss work out of the budget that is in the plan, you may not be able to charge for it
 Is the budget allocated in enough detail to satisfy the client’s questions and provide enough information to the client?
 Is the maths correct? Check the budget carefully for any inconsistencies.
You will need to use your numeracy skills to develop budgets. For example, to work out your charging rate, to work out how much time tasks will take, and to work out percentages, additions, subtractions and other mathematical information that may be part of the budget document.
You should provide the client with a copy of the budget you have produced, allowing them time to consider the budget before they approve it. If the client raises any concerns or questions about the budget, these should be answered before proceeding with any work. The budget should be agreed before you proceed. You may also wish to agree terms of payment as part of agreeing the budget. For example, this could be periodical following each stage of the process or it could be a lump sum within a specified time after completion of the process. It could also be a mixture of the two.

Activity 1D

  1. Develop marketing communication brief
    2.1. Develop brief, ensuring it contains a client profile, purpose statement and objectives reflecting client needs
    2.2. State marketing communication objectives in measurable terms and provide specific guidelines on what is to be accomplished by marketing communication
    2.3. Define key characteristics, competitive factors and market situation facing product or service
    2.4. Include a summary of information on target audience, and legal and ethical constraints  
    2.1 – Develop brief, ensuring it contains a client profile, purpose statement and objectives reflecting client needs

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Gather information required for the brief
 Develop a comprehensive brief including a:
o client profile
o purpose statement
o objective.
Developing a brief
The next stage in the process is to develop a marketing communication brief. A brief is a set of instructions about a job or task. There are certain elements that need to be included in marketing communication brief.
Elements in the brief may include:
 A client profile
 A purpose statement
 Objectives that reflect client needs.
Client profile
A client profile is a document that details all relevant information about your client. It may be past, such as the history of the product or service, current, such as their current accounts, or future, such as their aims and objectives for the future. It might include information such as your client’s personal details, financial history, and business profile/product profile/service profile as well as information such as their values, morals, and objectives. This is where you will use the information about the client which you gathered at an earlier stage in the process (discussed in Chapter 1.2), to write the client’s profile. As such, it might also include their pricing structure, their branding, how they market the product and other relevant details.
As well as information about your client, a full client profile may include information about their clients or customers. This could be information about the target audience, customer feedback and typical media consumption behaviour.
Purpose statement
A purpose statement is a statement which details the purpose of the marketing communication plan and the client’s purpose in marketing the product or service. In Chapter 1.1, we discussed that the first task is always to establish the marketing communication purpose and any objectives with the client.
It might help to answer questions, within the purpose statement, such as why the product or service is being provided, who the customers are, what the product or service does for them, what image the client wishes to convey, what their goals, beliefs, morals or values are, who their competitors are and why/how they are different to their competitors.
Objectives
Objectives were also covered in Chapter 1.1. They must be established with the client before a marketing communication plan can be designed and developed. They may be financial, moral or personal. They should be stated in measurable terms, which are discussed in detail in the next criteria. Objectives are personal to the client and their product or service. Marketing communication objectives are discussed in more detail in the next chapter.
Using technology skills
When developing the marketing brief, you will need to develop the technology skills to use a wide range of office equipment and software to create a marketing brief.
This may include:
 Equipment, such as:
o basic PC
o printer
o stationary
 Software, such as:
o e-mail or another form of communication
o basic text production software
o budgeting software
o case management software.


Activity 2A

2.2 – State marketing communication objectives in measurable terms and provide specific guidelines on what is to be accomplished by marketing communication

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Determine objectives and ensure they are measurable.
Marketing communication objectives
We have already discussed marketing communication objectives. In Chapter 1.1 we established that these objectives, alongside the purpose of the marketing communication, should be determinedwith the client in the first instance. We also established that these objectives should be detailed in the brief.
The marketing communication objectives should be stated in measurable terms and specific guidelines should be given as to what is to be accomplished by the marketing communication. The following is a list of objectives that are stated in measurable and specific terms.
Marketing communication objectives may include:
 Improve sales performance and/or profit
 Launch or re-launch a product or service
 Maintain or improve market share
 Maintain or increase awareness of a product or service
 Test a product or service.
You will notice from the above list that all of the objectives are stated in specific or measurable terms. Some are broader than others. This means that the client can easily assess whether they have been achieved. Stating objectives in measurable terms also lends itself to explaining financial objectives, which are often a common aspect of marketing communication plans.
By stating objectives in measurable terms and guided by specific accomplishments, it may:
 Provide clear, achievable objectives
 Keep the focus on the objectives
 Allow for clear recognition when an objective has, or has not, been achieved.
As part of the brief, it is necessary to provide specific guidelines on what is to be accomplished by the marketing communication. They act as clear, concise constraints and also act as a way in which accomplishment can be measured. This is an important part of any marketing communication brief.

Activity 2B

2.3 – Define key characteristics, competitive factors and market situation facing product or service

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Gather information about factors that will affect marketing communications, including:
o key characteristics (e.g. product, category, branding)
o competitive factors (e.g. similar products, competition)
o market situation (e.g. market share).
What is to be defined?
During the process of developing a marketing communication brief, there are several elements that need to be defined.
What are these elements? They may include:
 Key characteristics
 Competitive factors
 Market situation.
Let’s explore these elements in more detail.
Key characteristics
In the process of developing your brief, it is necessary to define key characteristics (of the product or service). Key characteristics are personal to the product or service in question. What does it provide? What category of products or services does it fall into? Key characteristics may include packaging/branding. How is the brand differentiated from other brands? What is the identity of the product/service and the organisation behind it? Key characteristics are any qualities or anything relating to the nature of the product or service that define and separate it from other products or services.
Competitive factors
It is also necessary to define the competitive factors facing the product or service when preparing the brief. Competitive factors are those factors relating to the competition the product or service faces. It may include the way the product is competitive (within the market) or, the way it lacks a competitive edge. Competitive factors may include details of the client’s competitors, the differences between your client’s product/service and their competitors’, how their competitors are marketing their product or service, how their competitors are pricing their product or service, etc. Competitive factors are closely linked to the market situation, discussed below.
Market situation
Finally, when developing your brief, define the market situation facing the product or service. This is an overview of the market in which the product or service is a part of – a combination of the above factors, as well as others. What might the term ‘market situation’ encompass? It is where this product or service fits into the market, how it is categorised, how much of the market it takes up, the competition within the market, the target audience for that market, etc.
First, you need to identify the market. Then, you need to analyse the market using data and/or information relevant to that market.
You may wish to ask questions such as:
 What is the level of competition within the market?
 How much of the market does the client’s product/service take up?
 Are there any relevant business partnerships? (E.g. Is there anyone you could utilise to sell your products?)


Activity 2C

2.4 – Include a summary of information on target audience, and legal and ethical constraints

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Summarise relevant information on target audience
 Summarise legal and ethical constraints. These may relate to:
o consumer protection
o copyright
o privacy.
Summarising information on the target audience
Finally, in developing a brief, you need to include a summary of information on the target audience, and legal and ethical constraints. Let’s consider these in turn.
A summary of information on the target audience will require you to first collect information on the target audience. The client may have provided you with a lot of this information when you determined the marketing communication requirements (Chapter 1.2 considered why it is important to obtain comprehensive client and product information during the initial stages of the development of the marketing communication plan). You may need to collect further information and data.
Information on the target audience that will assist the marketing communication plan, its purpose and objectives.
Information on the target audience may include:
 Attitudes
 Cultural factors
 Demographics
 Existing product usage
 Lifestyle
 Social factors
 Values.
You need knowledge of the principles of consumer behaviour and influences on buyer behaviour. Principles of consumer behaviour include buying trends and habits. In other words, what do customers buy? How much? How much do they spend? Why do they buy certain items? Answering these questions about your target audience is crucial to successfully marketing the product or service. If you know how the consumer behaves, you will know how to influence or use that behaviour to market your product.
Influences on buyer behaviour may include influences within society (e.g. which groups the consumer belongs to, their family situation and their role and status within society will all influence their buying behaviour), influences that are governed by personal characteristics (e.g. the demographics discussed above such as age, interests, income, lifestyle, etc. will all influence buying behaviour) and psychological influences (e.g. motivation to buy and buyers’ beliefs and attitudes). Once this information has been obtained, you can use it to create a profile of the target audience.
You don’t just need to know who to target, but also how you are going to target them. You do this by analysing which media your target audience use (e.g. a certain magazine, watching television at a certain time, watching certain television programmes.) Detailed information is required.
Summarising legal and ethical constraints
We have already established that before finalising the development of the marketing communication brief, you should provide a summary of legal and ethical constraints.
Legal constraints are those set by legislation, common law or other regulations. Ethical constraints are the moral constraints placed by society. You need to establish whether any of these constraints could affect the marketing communication plan and if so, how. Legal and ethical constraints are wide ranging.
Legal and ethical constraints may include:
 Codes of practice, such as those issued by:
o Advertising Federation of Australia
o Australian Communications and Media Authority
o Australian Competition and Consumer Commission
o Australasian Performing Right Association
o Commercial Radio Australia
o Free TV Australia
 Cultural expectations and influences
 Ethical principles
 Legislation, for example:
o anti-discrimination legislation
o consumer protection laws
o copyright legislation
o ethical principles
o fair trading laws
o privacy laws
o Trade Practices Act
 Policies and guidelines
 Regulations
 Social responsibilities, such as protection of children and environmentally sustainable practices
 Societal expectations.
You must have enough overview knowledge to identify key provisions of relevant legislation, codes of practice and national standards that affect business operations as they relate to marketing. In particular, overview knowledge of the above list of legislation.
The following key provisions may be applicable when developing your brief:
 Anti-discrimination legislation: The Australian Human Rights Commission identifies the following legislation that may be applicable to anti-discrimination, including:
o Age Discrimination Act 2004
o Australian Human Rights Commission Act 1986
o Disability Discrimination Act 1992
o Racial Discrimination Act 1975
o Sex Discrimination Act 1984
 Consumer protection laws and fair trading laws: The Competition and Consumer Act (‘CCA’) 2010 ensures that trading is fair and consumers are protected. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) administersthe CCA and should be consulted for the latest information regarding fair trading and consumer protection. (https://www.accc.gov.au/)
 Copyright legislation: Copyright protection applies automatically in Australia, protecting the original expression of ideas. It is not necessary to register copyright though it is possible to use a copyright notice to deter potential infringement.Copyright protection is provided under the Copyright Act 1968 though a number of legislative changes were made in 2004
 Ethical principles: Ethical and moral principles are usually governed by Codes of Conduct, business practices and procedures
 Privacy laws: The Office of the Australian Information Commissioner identifies the Privacy Act 1988 as the law regulating the handling of personal information about individuals, including the collection, use, storage, disclosure, access to and correction of disclosure of private information. (http://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy/privacy-act/the-privacy-act)
 Trade Practices Act: The Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (see above) has superseded the Trade Practices Act.

Activity 2D

  1. Design integrated marketing communication strategy
    3.1. Select marketing communication options appropriate for marketing communication brief
    3.2. Critically analyse advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable and media vehicles for product or service
    3.3. Determine media characteristics matching brief requirements
    3.4. Analyse media consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media among target audiences
    3.5. Evaluate media styles against the brand character of product or service being marketed
    3.6. Compare advantages and disadvantages of selecting multiple media in a media plan
    3.7. Develop and apply criteria for selecting multiple media combinations  
    3.1 – Select marketing communication options appropriate for marketing communication brief

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Make decisions regarding marketing communication options
Marketing communication options
So far, you have established the required skills and knowledge to first determine a client’s marketing communication requirements and then use that information, as well as establishing new information, to develop a marketing communication brief for the client. The next stage in the process is designing the integrated marketing communication process.
The initial stage in the design process is selecting marketing communication options that are appropriate for the marketing communication brief. Marketing communication options are methods of communicating with the target audience. What might you want to communicate? You may wish to communicate knowledge about the brand or product to the target audience. It might be informative, promotional, persuasive, or any other type of information or knowledge relevant to marketing the product or service.
Marketing communication options may include:
 Advertising
 Customer service
 Direct marketing
 events and sponsorships
 Packaging
 Personal selling
 Publicity and public relations
 Sales promotion.
You must have knowledge of a range of marketing communication options for different markets. What communication option will get the right message to the right audience? What communication option will be able to give the information or knowledge you need to give? What fits with the brand? Above all, which marketing communication options are suitable for the market which your client’s product or service falls into?
You must also have knowledge of the economic, social and industry trends relevant to the choice of appropriate media options. For example, within social trends, the growth of social media is the most predominant force affecting the choice of appropriate media options. It is becoming more and more necessary for marketing to utilise social media where it can reach a much wider audience for, potentially, a much lower cost.

Activity 3A

3.2 –Critically analyse advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable and media vehicles for product or service

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 List advantages and disadvantages for media vehicle for product or services
Critical analysis
The next step in designing the integrated marketing communication strategy is conducting a critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable and media vehicles for the product or service. Let’s break this down.
First, you must establish the advantages and disadvantages of each marketing communications variable. This is an analysis of the marketing communication options discussed in the previous chapter. What might advantages and disadvantages include? The answer will vary depending on the product or service that you are marketing. For example, which ones will reach the highest number of people (within your target audience)? What is the cost of the different options? What does the client want? These are all potential advantages and disadvantages.
Second, you need to critically analyse media vehicles for the product or service. You must have knowledge of a range of media vehicles for marketing communication options. A media vehicle is a specific print or electronic medium used as part of a marketing communication plan. As such, they are wide in range and there are many options available. Again, the advantages and disadvantages of the marketing communication options may govern the choice of media vehicles.
Media vehicles may include:
 Aerial advertising
 Billboards and posters
 Cable and satellite television
 Cinema
 Direct mail
 Direct response
 Email marketing
 Exhibitions and trade fairs
 Internet
 Magazines
 New media, including multimedia and hypermedia, such as:
o Streaming video and audio
o 3-D virtual reality environments and effects
o interactive user interfaces
o mobile presentation
o use of high-bandwidth
o CD and DVD media
o telephone and digital data integration
o online communities
o live internet broadcasting
o person-to-person visual communication
o one-to-many visual communication
 Newspapers
 Outdoor
 Personal selling
 Podcasting
 Point of sale
 Radio
 Sales literature
 Sales promotion
 Sponsorship
 Television
 Telemarketing
 Transit media, such as bus sides and taxi backs
 Video, video games and videotext.


Activity 3B

3.3 – Determine media characteristics matching brief requirements

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Choose media characteristics that the communications will require according to the brief.
Determining media characteristics
When designing the integrated marketing communication strategy, it is necessary to determine media characteristics that match the requirements of the brief. First, it is important to understand what is meant by the term media characteristics.
The term ‘media characteristics’ simply refers to the features or qualities that are typical to that particular chosen media. The characteristics are the things that define that media, that make it identifiable and, in some cases, that separate it from other forms of media.
Media characteristics may include:
 Level of audience involvement
 Level of audience receptiveness
 Motion effects
 Proximity to purchase
 Sound effects
 Visual effects
 Whether the target audience responds actively
 Whether the target audience responds passively.
All of these are characteristics that relate to different types of media. Some characteristics may be more suitable for your client’s needs. For example, depending on what message they wish to communicate to their preferred audience, certain products may lend themselves to visual effects.
As part of determining media characteristics, it is necessary that they must match the requirements of the brief. This means ensuring that the media you choose, according to its characteristics, will meet the purpose of and aims and objectives contained in the brief. This might be conveying a certain message or information (e.g. a written or spoken message), clearly identifying or promoting the brand (e.g. visual branding), or involving the audience in some way (e.g. asking for feedback, competitions, etc.).
Look at the brief carefully and the marketing communication options and media vehicles that you have identified. Which media characteristics could be used as part of these choices? Some characteristics may only apply in certain cases. You may need to change your selection of media vehicle, for example, to incorporate certain characteristics. A good example of this is audience involvement. Depending upon the level of involvement you want, certain media vehicles may not be able to incorporate this characteristic. It is, therefore, important to consider the different aspects of media options as a whole.
Activity 3C

3.4 – Analyse media consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media among target audiences

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Gather information on media consummation habits of target audience
Analysing media consumption habits
The next stage is to conduct an analysis of media consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media among target audiences.
Media consumption habits
Media consumption habits are the habits of individuals or groups when using certain media for information, entertainment or otherwise. It includes all media, such as books, magazines, television, online, etc. It may be influenced by many factors including the ability of the person or group to access certain media, developments in technology, cultural influences, social status or other personal factors that influence use.
Primary and supplementary marketing media
Primary and supplementary marketing media refers to the difference in the status of the marketing media consumed by the target audience. Primary media is that which is the most important; in this case, it is the media that is consumed most frequently. For example, the target audience might primarily use social media. If so, which type do they use most? Is it Facebook, Twitter or another? Supplementary marketing media suggests media which is additional, enhancing of or incidental to the primary media.
The target audience
The target audience is the ideal customer – the individual or group of people that the service or product is aimed at. We have already covered the information you need to establish regarding the target audience in Chapter 2.4 of this guide.
Conducting your analysis
Therefore, if we put these three elements together, the analysis must include a close inspection of the media consumption habits (of both primary and supplementary marketing media) of the target audience. The information you obtained as part of Chapter 2.4 may assist you when conducting your analysis. Remember that data can also be helpful when analysing trends.
When conducting your analysis, you may wish to ask the following questions:
 Who is your target audience?
 What primary marketing media do they consume?
 What supplementary marketing media do they consume?
 What is the latter media supplementary to?
 What are the main characteristics of the media they consume?
 What trends, habits or routines are there developing, if any? 
Activity 3D

3.5 – Evaluate media styles against the brand character of product or service being marketed

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Determine appropriate media styles for the marketing communication
 Gather information on relevant factors, including brand character.
Evaluating media styles
The next step is to evaluate media styles as they relate to the brand character of the product or service being marketed.
Media styles
Media styles refers to the style of the media you are using. A style refers to the particular way or manner something is done. Media styles specifically relate to the brand character of the product or service being marketed. They influence how the brand is shown to and thus viewed by others.
Brand character
Brand character refers to the character of the product or service, its qualities or nature. The brand is the name and image of the product or service. Therefore, character is closely linked to how the brand is presented and perceived by the target audience. Media styles assist in informing the target audience and developing their knowledge of the brand character.
Conducting your evaluation
How might media styles relate to the brand character of the product or service being marketed? As stated, they affect the way the product is shown, what information about the product is given and how this is done affects how the product is perceived by the target audience. Audiences may be more open to styles they feel comfortable with. The style might, therefore, draw on factors you have previously established about the audience. You may wish to use a style that differentiates the brand.
Alternatively, some styles may be more suitable for the media options you have selected. Take social media and online marketing, for example, the nature of which is instant. Consumers expect information instantly. There is also a great deal of information online so you may need to think about how the styles you use will make this product or service stand out from the crowd, be instantly accessible and concise.
Factors you may wish to consider when conducting your evaluation include:
 What media styles do your competitors use? Do these work and, if so, why? Should you be using a different media style, to stand out from competitors?
 What media styles do your target audience regularly consume? Are they drawn in by certain media styles and, if so, why? Consumer feedback and data is useful here
 How will your chosen media styles get the ethos of your product or service across to the target audience? This could be visual, sound based or written, depending on the nature of the product or service and the information and/or knowledge you wish to share with the target audience
 Does the chosen media vehicle affect the media style? For example, if you are using an advertisement in a magazine, you may wish to consider whether you will be restricted by certain style and formatting requirements.

Activity 3E

3.6 – Compare advantages and disadvantages of selecting multiple media in a media plan

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Make decisions regarding multiple media based on research of advantages and disadvantages.
Comparing advantages and disadvantages
The next stage in the process of designing the integrated marketing communication strategy is to compare the advantages and disadvantages of selecting multiple media in a media plan.
What is meant by the term multiple media?
 It simply means using more than one type of media to market the product or service
 It may also cover a situation where you are using primary and supplementary media within the plan.
Remember that advantages must be compared to disadvantages. Advantages are any positive results of using multiple media. For example, using multiple media may provide access to a wider audience. However, at the same time, a disadvantage might be that whilst the audience is wider you aren’t necessarily accessing the target audience through the choice of media. Therefore, disadvantages are any negative aspects due to the use of multiple media. Common disadvantages of multiple media may be a higher cost, higher management and higher resources.
Advantages of selecting multiple media may include:
 Increasing the frequency of the advertising message
 Increasing the reach of the advertising message.
Disadvantages of selecting multiple media may include:
 Duplication of impact
 Duplication of resources
 Increasing the cost of marketing.
After listing and assessing the advantages and disadvantages of using multiple media in your plan, you will need to make a decision as to whether you are going to use multiple media. If not, which media will you remove from your plan? Which will remain? The answers will vary depending on the advantages and disadvantages that you have identified. Remember that it is a balancing act.
When analysing the advantages and disadvantages of using multiple media, you must develop research and data-collection skills to evaluate the suitability of media to the product or service, and brand and marketing objectives. These aspects will govern the advantages and disadvantages to some extent.
Finally, you will need to design and develop a set of criteria for selecting multiple media combinations. This will be discussed in more detail in the next chapter.

Activity 3F

3.7 – Develop and apply criteria for selecting multiple media combinations

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Develop detailed criteria for making decisions on use of media
 Apply criteria clearly and consistently.
Developing and applying criteria
Following on from the previous chapter, you need to develop and apply criteria for selecting multiple media combinations. This is the final stage in the design process when designing an integrated marketing communication strategy.
The criteria should be developed for selecting multiple media combinations. This means that you will apply these criteria when you select the multiple media combinations as being appropriate for this product or service. It may, therefore, include some of the factors you established from comparing the disadvantages and advantages in the previous chapter. The criteria must be developed in relation to this product or service. It is not possible to apply the same criteria to every product or service you are developing a strategy for. For marketing to be successful, you must know the product or service, market and customer in detail. The criteria must, therefore, be subjective.
Criteria should be as long or short as is required for the product or service in question. It might question some of the advantages or disadvantages of multiple media. It might question whether multiple media will meet the purpose of the marketing communication plan or the objectives of the client. It might be governed by cost, time or other available resources. It may be governed by the failures, or successes, of previous marketing communication and its use of multiple media. All of these factors can be considered, and more, when developing your criteria.
Criteria may include:
 Whether frequency will be increased
 Whether reach will be increased
 Cost
 Avoidance of ‘zipping and zapping’.
Keep a record of the criteria you use and your justifications for selecting multiple media options as you may need to refer to these in the future; for example, if there is a problem with the multiple media selected. This also assists if, at any point in the future, you need to change your multiple media options. Marketing communication plans change and develop over time and it may be that the requirements for multiple media change too.  
Activity 3G

  1. Select and recommend media for marketing strategy
    4.1. Select media vehicles that match requirements of marketing brief for product or service
    4.2. Recommend primary and secondary marketing media that meet target audience preferences
    4.3. Ensure recommended media meet the brief, client’s requirements, and legal and ethical constraints  
    4.1 – Select media vehicles that match requirements of marketing brief for product or service

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Make decisions regarding media vehicles
 Justify choice of media vehicles, referring to brief and other relevant information.
Selecting media vehicles
Let’s recap on what skills and knowledge we have covered so far. We started with the factors required to determine a client’s marketing communication requirements and then used this information, as well as establishing some new information, to develop a marketing communication brief. Next, we established the requirements in designing the integrated marketing communication strategy.
The next stage is to select and recommend media for the marketing strategy. First, it is necessary to select media vehicles that match the requirements of the marketing brief for the product or service. We discussed media vehicles in Chapter 3.2. You will recall that media vehicles are specific print or electronic medium used as part of a marketing communication plan. As such, they are wide in range and there are many options available when selecting media vehicles. Examples include magazines, radio, television and online media.
It is now necessary to select appropriate media vehicles. Which ones do you select? You should select the media vehicles that match the requirements of your brief. Remember the brief contained a client profile, purpose statement and objectives. It also contained the key characteristics, competitive factors and the market situation. Finally, the brief contained a summary of the target audience and any legal or ethical constraints. All of this information will assist when selecting media vehicles.
The question you need to keep in mind is: Which media vehicles match the requirements of the brief?
It may be helpful to keep a list of all media vehicle options which you can compare to the information contained in the brief. You should be able to justify your choice of media vehicles. It may be that certain media vehicles meet the brief, but there are advantages and disadvantages that govern whether you can use that media vehicle; for example, the cost may be too high even if it is relevant to the requirements of the brief. Sometimes, therefore, the requirements of the brief are not the only factors that you need to consider.
As discussed earlier, you should have a basic knowledge of the economic, social and industry trends relevant to the choice of appropriate media options. For example, if a requirement of the brief is to reach a large audience, social media may be an appropriate media vehicle. However, this will depend on other factors such as whether your target audience uses social media and if so what types of social media they use.
Selecting media vehicles is therefore not a simple process and requires an in-depth analysis of the client, their objectives, the purpose of the marketing communication, their target audience and the market situation of the product or service including any competition.
Activity 4A

4.2 – Recommend primary and secondary marketing media that meet target audience preferences

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Identifying and recommending primary/secondary media.
Recommending primary and secondary marketing media
The next step in selecting and recommending media for the marketing strategy is recommending primary and secondary marketing media that meet the target audience preferences.
We discussed primary and secondary marketing media in Chapter 3.4 and established that it refers to the main media used (primary) and any supplementary, incidental or enhancing media used (secondary).
We also discussed target audience in Chapter 2.4 (where we summarised information you may need to gather about the target audience) and 3.4 (where we analysed their consumption habits for primary and supplementary marketing media). Using the information gathered already, therefore, you can establish what the target audience preferences are.
The target audience preferences will govern which media should be primary and which should be secondary. Let’s consider this in practice. Let’s say the target audience primarily accesses social media. It isn’t enough just to know this. You need to establish which social media sites they access predominantly. This may be the primary media used. However, you also need to know what times they access the media, how often and how long for. These aspects will all govern the media you are able to use. You therefore need to establish the target audience preferences in detail and select media that will meet those preferences. The highest preferences should be met with primary media.
You may wish to consider the following points when recommending media:
 Make recommendations that meet the target audience preferences
 You must have knowledge of industry products or services in order to recommend appropriate media options.


Activity 4B

4.3 – Ensure recommended media meet the brief, client’s requirements, and legal and ethical constraints

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Review media recommendations according to recognised criteria, including:
o the brief
o client requirements
o legal/ethical constraints.
Recommended media requirements
The final stage in selecting and recommending media for the marketing strategy is to ensure that the media you have recommended meet the brief, client’s requirements and legal and ethical constraints. Let’s look at each factor in more detail.
The brief
Recommended media must meet the brief. Remember that we have looked at two types of brief so far. The marketing communication brief was developed after establishing the marketing requirements. It thereforeincluded information such as the client profile, the purpose statement and objectives that reflected the client’s needs. It also included information on the target audience. It therefore covered the client’s requirements in detail. As a result, you need to work closely with the brief when recommending media. The two must correspond. We will also look at developing a creative brief, in the next chapter. The recommended media must also meet the requirements of this brief.
The client’s requirements
The client’s requirements are part of drafting up the marketing communication brief. The recommended media must meet the client’s requirements. Their requirements are central to the marketing communication plan, its purpose and objectives. This is therefore a fundamental consideration. This is why the client’s objectives were written in specific and measureable terms, which should make it easier to identify which media will meet the client’s objectives.
Legal and ethical constraints
Finally, you must ensure that the recommended media meet any legal and ethical constraints. This was another element of the marketing and communication brief and therefore if the recommended media meet the brief, they should meet these requirements. You will be able to use the summary of legal and ethical constraints when recommending media.


Activity 4C

  1. Develop creative brief
    5.1. Identify creative content for chosen media using consumer language in the brief
    5.2. Identify pitch or appeal for product or service in the brief that meets client requirements
    5.3. Identify supporting information required for consumer understanding of product or service in the brief
    5.4. Ensure budget for creative work, consistent with overall marketing budget, is contained in the brief
    5.5. Incorporate deadline for creative work consistent with overall media schedule in the brief  
    5.1 – Identify creative content for chosen media using consumer language in the brief

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Gather information from the brief regarding required creative content.
Identifying creative content
So far, we have covered the following learning objectives:
 Determine marketing communication requirements
 Develop marketing communication brief
 Design the integrated marketing communication strategy
 Select and recommend media for the marketing strategy.
The final element we need to cover is how to develop a creative brief. The first stage in developing a creative brief is identifying creative content for the chosen media using consumer language in the brief.
Remember that the chosen media covers marketing communication options, media vehicles, media characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages and selection of multiple media. It may, therefore, be the case that you are required to identify creative content for different types of media.
How might creative content be identified for the chosen media? It may be governed by the limits of that media. For example, marketing in a magazine may be limited to their style and formatting requirements, marketing on the television may be restricted by certain creative limits, and so on. However, technology is constantly advancing. If your client has a specific creative idea that they want to implement, it may be necessary to select media which will allow for this creative content.
When selecting creative content, it may be helpful to use the consumer language in the brief. This is language that is appropriate to your target audience, their consumer behaviour and trends. For example, the consumer language used for a target audience of new mothers may be very different to that used for a target audience of teenagers. This may therefore significantly affect the creative content you identify as not only being appropriate but also successful.
Creative content may include:
 Brand or image factors
 Colour
 Features of the product or service.  
Activity 5A

5.2 –Identify pitch or appeal for product or service in the brief that meets client requirements

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Specify pitch or appeal of product/service in the brief.
Identifying pitch or appeal
The next stage in developing the creative brief is to identify the pitch or appeal for the product or service in the brief that meets client requirements. What does the term pitch or appeal refer to?
The pitch or appeal is the benefits that the product or service can bring to the target audience. It is, therefore, an important aspect of branding and marketing the product or service. You must show the audience what you can do for them, why your product or service is different to others on the market and why they should choose you.
Pitch or appeal may include:
 Key benefits promised to the audience by the advertiser, which may be:
o emotional
o need-arousing
o need-satisfying
o negative
o positive
o rational.
Remember that the pitch or appeal needs to meet the client requirements and be appropriate to the product or service. It is also important to select media which can convey your pitch or appeal. For example, a visual pitch may be more persuasive in some circumstances. The appropriate media for conveying the pitch or appeal will depend on the product or service that you are marketing.
Consumer feedback and data is very useful here. What other consumers found persuasive, emotive or positive, may act as a useful guide to what you should be pitching and how. 
Activity 5B

5.3 – Identify supporting information required for consumer understanding of product or service in the brief

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Specific and document supporting information which needs to be communicated to the target audience.
Identifying supporting information
The next step when developing a creative brief is to identify supporting information required for consumer understanding of the product of service in the brief.
Consumers require different supporting information depending upon the product or service. Let’s take an example of marketing a clothing brand. The consumer will want to know what the product is made of, where it was made, washing/drying instructions and the size of the product. All of this information will inform the consumer before they make a purchase. Without supporting information, your potential consumer may purchase a product from a competitor with whom they feel more informed and confident.
There are many examples of supporting information and the information you need to provide will be governed by the type of product or service you are marketing. It may be useful to consider what supporting information your competitors give. It may also be important to consider any legal or ethical requirements which require you to give certain supporting information, such as consumer protection legislation.
Supporting information may include:
 Evidence to support the claimed benefit
 Purchasing information
 Reassurance for existing users
 Requirements to specify the target audience. 
Activity 5C

5.4 – Ensure budget for creative work, consistent with overall marketing budget, is contained in the brief

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Document budgetary information for creative work.
Budget for creative work
Before you can finalise the development of a creative brief you must ensure that the budget for creative work, consistent with the overall marketing budget, is contained in the creative brief.
Budget was considered as part of Chapter 1.4 as part of determining the client’s marketing communication requirements. The budget should have been confirmed and agreed with the client at that stage (when developing the marketing communication brief). It should be given to the client in advance, to consider and approve or ask questions where required. Any questions should be answered before you proceed.
Remember that there is a difference between the budget for creative work and the overall marketing budget and theses aspects should both be contained in the brief. They should be clearly identified for the client and broken down into separate tasks where appropriate so that the client can easily understand the level of work you are undertaking.
You will need to develop and use your numeracy skills to develop budgets.


Activity 5D

5.5 – Incorporate deadline for creative work consistent with overall media schedule in the brief

By the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
 Agree deadline for creative work with theclient and ensure work is completed in accordance with it.
Incorporating deadlines
Finally, before you finalise the development of the creative brief, you need to incorporate a deadline for creative work that is consistent with the overall media schedule, in the creative brief.
Deadline for creative work
The deadline must be consistent with the overall media schedule. Factors influencing the deadline will include the nature and extent of creative work being undertaken. It may involve factors such as the resources available and room for any anomalies that may occur.
As part of the deadline for creative work, you should produce a Schedule of Creative Work which identifies the creative work which is to be undertaken, in detail. Again, this should account for any anomalies or changes in circumstances (e.g. the client’s objectives or needs) which may occur.
The Schedule of Creative Work and the deadline must be incorporated into the brief. It should be agreed with the client beforehand, preferably in writing.
You will need to develop and use your organisational and time-management skills to sequence tasks and meet timelines. You should follow the timeline carefully, to avoid mismanagement and potential failure of the marketing communication plan.

Activity 5E

Summative Assessments
At the end of your Learner Workbook, you will find the Summative Assessments.
This includes:
 Skills assessment
 Knowledge assessment
 Performance assessment.
This holistically assesses your understanding and application of the skills, knowledge and performance requirements for this unit. Once this is completed, you will have finished this unit and be ready to move onto the next one – well done!

References

These suggested references are for further reading and do not necessarily represent the contents of this unit.
Websites
Anti-discrimination legislation: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/guide-australias-anti-discrimination-laws
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission: https://www.accc.gov.au
Privacy Laws: http://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy/privacy-act/the-privacy-act

All references accessed on and correct as of 3rd January, unless other otherwise stated.

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