Describe a sensor that would give an electrical output

Feedback control requires being able to sense the variable being controlled. Because electrical signals can be transmitted, amplified, and processed easily, often we want to have a sensor whose output is a voltage or current proportional to the variable being measured. Describe a sensor that would give an electrical output proportional to:

(a) Temperature

(b) pressure

(c) liquid level

(d) flow of liquid along a pipe (or blood along an artery) force

(e) linear position

(f) rotational position

(g) linear velocity

(h) rotational speed

(i) translational acceleration

(j) torque

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