Critics of evolutionary approach to state the approach

  1. __ of evolutionary processes have no functional value but occur as side effects. For example, a belly button is a side effect of the umbilical cord; it has no adaptive function of its own.

a. Sleeper effects

b. Random effects

c. By-products

d. Dual-products

  1. __ are characteristics like hair swirls that are carried along from generation to generation merely because there are no negative consequences for the organism.

a. Sleeper effects

b. Random effects

c. By-products

d. Dual-products

  1. Critics of the evolutionary approach state that this approach

a. oversimplifies human behavior and downplays variability across historical times, cultures, and contexts.

b. makes no effort to pit the hypothesis that particular strategies are genetically transmitted against the hypotheses that these strategies are genetically transmitted.

c. uses post hoc reasoning.

d. is characterized by all of these.

  1. Dr. Amon is believes that each stage of development represents adaptations to circumstances at that point in the lifespan. For example, Dr. Amon would view the emergence of guilt in preschoolers as a protective adaptation that prevents these children from harming their younger siblings. Dr. Amon advocates the

a. psychodynamic perspective.

b. learning perspective.

c. evolutionary perspective.

d. humanistic perspective.

  1. The _ perspective analyzes how we think, that is, how we acquire knowledge and use it to solve problems, make decisions, and guide behavior.

a. learning

b. psychodynamic

c. cognitive

d. contextualist

  1. __ proposed a cognitive developmental theory that explained how children actively construct their understanding of the world.

a. B. F. Skinner

b. Jean Piaget

c. John Bowlby

d. Albert Bandura

  1. Children’s representations of the world change from physical routines for acting on objects to mental events. Piaget called these representations of the world __.

a. antecedents

b. by-products

c. consequences

d. schemes

  1. Piaget thought that children experience __ regarding their understanding of the world.

a. qualitative changes

b. a zone of proximal development

c. a washout effect

d. a sleeper effect

  1. According to Piaget, development occurs when children

a. observe a successful model and imitate this new behavior.

b. interact with competent tutors within their zone of proximal development.

c. confront new knowledge that conflicts with their existing understanding of the world, which forces them to revise their schemes.

d. learn a new behavior by parents reinforcing successive approximations to the child’s successful performance of this new skill.

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

a. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

b. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operational, formal operational

c. sensorimotor, preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational

d. preoperational, concrete operational, sensorimotor, formal operational

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