This notebook was prepared by Donne Martin. Source and license info is on GitHub.

- Is the output a positive int?
- Yes

- Can we assume the inputs are valid?
- No

- Can we assume this fits memory?
- Yes

- None -> Exception
- 0 -> Exception
- negative int -> Exception
- General case:
* Input: 0000 0000 1101 0111 * Next largest: 0000 0000 1101 1011 * Next smallest: 0000 0000 1100 1111

- Find the right-most non trailing zero, call this index
- We'll use a mask of 1 and do a logical right shift on a copy of num to examine each bit starting from the right
- Count the number of zeroes to the right of index
- While num & 1 == 0 and num_copy != 0:
- Increment number of zeroes
- Logical shift right num_copy

- While num & 1 == 0 and num_copy != 0:
- Count the number of ones to the right of index
- While num & 1 == 1 and num_copy != 0:
- Increment number of ones
- Logical shift right num_copy

- While num & 1 == 1 and num_copy != 0:
- The index will be the sum of number of ones and number of zeroes
- Set the index bit
- Clear all bits to the right of index
- Set bits starting from 0
- Only set (number of ones - 1) bits because we set index to 1

We should make a note that Python does not have a logical right shift operator built in. We can either use a positive number of implement one for a 32 bit number:

```
num % 0x100000000 >> n
```

- The algorithm for finding the next smallest number is very similar to finding the next largest number
- Instead of finding the right-most non-trailing zero, we'll find the right most non-trailing one and clear it
- Clear all bits to the right of index
- Set bits starting at 0 to the number of ones to the right of index, plus one

Complexity:

- Time: O(b), where b is the number of bits in num
- Space: O(b), where b is the number of bits in num

In [1]:

```
class Bits(object):
def get_next_largest(self, num):
if num is None:
raise TypeError('num cannot be None')
if num <= 0:
raise ValueError('num cannot be 0 or negative')
num_ones = 0
num_zeroes = 0
num_copy = num
# We'll look for index, which is the right-most non-trailing zero
# Count number of zeroes to the right of index
while num_copy != 0 and num_copy & 1 == 0:
num_zeroes += 1
num_copy >>= 1
# Count number of ones to the right of index
while num_copy != 0 and num_copy & 1 == 1:
num_ones += 1
num_copy >>= 1
# Determine index and set the bit
index = num_zeroes + num_ones
num |= 1 << index
# Clear all bits to the right of index
num &= ~((1 << index) - 1)
# Set bits starting from 0
num |= ((1 << num_ones - 1) - 1)
return num
def get_next_smallest(self, num):
if num is None:
raise TypeError('num cannot be None')
if num <= 0:
raise ValueError('num cannot be 0 or negative')
num_ones = 0
num_zeroes = 0
num_copy = num
# We'll look for index, which is the right-most non-trailing one
# Count number of zeroes to the right of index
while num_copy != 0 and num_copy & 1 == 1:
num_ones += 1
num_copy >>= 1
# Count number of zeroes to the right of index
while num_copy != 0 and num_copy & 1 == 0:
num_zeroes += 1
num_copy >>= 1
# Determine index and clear the bit
index = num_zeroes + num_ones
num &= ~(1 << index)
# Clear all bits to the right of index
num &= ~((1 << index) - 1)
# Set bits starting from 0
num |= (1 << num_ones + 1) - 1
return num
```

In [2]:

```
%%writefile test_get_next_largest.py
import unittest
class TestBits(unittest.TestCase):
def test_get_next_largest(self):
bits = Bits()
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_largest, None)
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_largest, 0)
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_largest, -1)
num = int('011010111', base=2)
expected = int('011011011', base=2)
self.assertEqual(bits.get_next_largest(num), expected)
print('Success: test_get_next_largest')
def test_get_next_smallest(self):
bits = Bits()
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_smallest, None)
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_smallest, 0)
self.assertRaises(Exception, bits.get_next_smallest, -1)
num = int('011010111', base=2)
expected = int('011001111', base=2)
self.assertEqual(bits.get_next_smallest(num), expected)
print('Success: test_get_next_smallest')
def main():
test = TestBits()
test.test_get_next_largest()
test.test_get_next_smallest()
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
```

In [3]:

```
%run -i test_get_next_largest.py
```